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BEET SUGAR ANALYSIS. 



A COMPLETE SYSTEM OF INSTRUCTION FOR 

ANALYSTS IN BEET SUGAR 

FACTORIES. 



BY 

KLWOOD s. PEFFER, A. c., 



CHINO VATJ.jfcfeSite6DGAR CO. 




1897. 

E. C. HAMILTON, PUBLISHER. 
CHINO, CAL. 



L 
Jr 



COPYRIGHTED 1897 
BY ERNEST C. HAMILTON 



PRESS OF WARDEN, THE PRINTER. 
Los ANGELES, CAL. 




THE great interest now being manifested in the development of 
the beet sugar industry in this country seems to leave little 
room for doubt but that the present beet sugar production of 
the United States will be multiplied many times within the next 
few years. With the establishment of the industry reference books 
will become a necessity, and BEET SUGAR ANALYSIS was written 
in the hope that it will prove of value in the very important matter 
of chemical control of factories. 

It is intended primarily as a complete school for the beginner, 
but the experienced chemist may occasionally find it useful for 
reference. I have given what I consider to be the most practical 
and accurate methods for testfn x e<Vejy substance and solution the 
chemist is called upon to analyze in beet sugar work, describing 
also the proper way to take samples and prepare them for analysis. 
The " Pointers " given, which are hints on methods for facilitating 
work and avoiding sources of error, it is hoped will help the young 
chemist, as he could otherwise learn them only by experience. 
After Chapter I the "Pointers " are not separated, but are written 
in the text. In addition to the analysis of all sugar-containing 
substances, I have also given methods for analyzing water, lime- 
stone, coke and coal, and all other supplies which must be exam- 
ined chemically to determine their availability for sugar work. A 
description of the most practical apparatus for use is given as an 
aid to new factories. The reference tables given have nearly all 
been compiled for this work and they are guaranteed to be abso- 
lutely correct. 

In the study of which this book was born, Mr. James G. Oxnard 
gave me many valuable "Pointers," and to Mr. E. Turck and Dr. 
C. Portius, of the Chino Valley Beet Sugar Company, I am also 
greatly indebted for suggestions and advice. 

ELWOOD S. PEFFER. 

No. 513 Fillmore Street, TOPBKA, KANSAS. 



REFERENCES CONSULTED. 

The works of reference named below, which were consulted in 
the preparation of BEET SUGAR ANALYSIS are all to be recom- 
mended to the student : 

ATKINSON, E., Ganofs Physics, (tenth edition ) 

Bulletin No. 46, Chemical Division United States Department 
of Agriculture. 

COMMERSON, E., et RANGIER, E., "Guide Pour 1'analysedes 
Matieres sucrees," (third edition.) 

FRESENIUS, C. R., "Quantitative Chemische Analyse," (also 
second American edition ) 

FRUHLING, R., und SCHULZ, J., "Anleitung Zur Untersuchung 
der fiir die Zuckerindustriein Betracht kommenden Rohmaterialien, 
etc ," (fourth edition.) 

FRUHLING, R., same as above, (fifth edition ) 

LANDOI/T, H., Handbook of the Polariscope. 

LEPLAY, H., "Chimie theorique et prateque des Industries du 
Sucre." 

PREUSS, E., "Leitfaden fiir Zuckerfabrik Chemiker." 

Regulations Relative to the Bounty on Sugar of Domestic Pro- 
duction, Series 7, No. 17, Revised, U. S. Internal Revenue. 

REMSEN, IRA, Inorganic Chemistry. 

SACHS, F., " Revue Universelle des Progres de la Fabrication 
du Sucre." 

SCHEiBivER, C., "Anleitung zum Gebrauche des Apparates zur 
Bestimmung der Kohlensauren Kalkerde in der Knochenkohle 
sowie zur volumetrisch quantitativen Analyse der Kohlensauren 
Salze." 

SPENCER, G. L/., A Handbook for Sugar Manufacturers and 
their Chemists. 

STAMMER, K., "Lehrbuch der Zuckerfabrikation," (second 
edition.) 

STILLMAN, T. B., Engineering Chemistry . 

TUCKER, J. H., Manual of Sugar Analysis. 

VON lyiPPMAN, E., "Die Zuckerarten und ihre Derivate." 

WANKLYN, J. A., Water Analysis, (tenth edition.) 

WINKLER, C., Handbook of Technical Gas Analysis. 

WIECHMANN, F. G., Sugar Analysis, 

WAI/LIS-TYLER, A. J., Sugar Machinery. 



ABBREVIATIONS AND CONTRACTIONS. 

USED IN THIS WORK. 

C. Centigrade. 
CC. Cubic Centimeters. 
F. Fahrenheit. 
F. Frontispiece. 
Fig. Figure (Illustration). 
Gr. Gramme or Grammes. 
Kilo. Kilogramme. 
L. Liter. 
M. Meter. 

Mg. Milligramme or Milligrammes. 
MM. Millimeter or Millimeters. 

M. Full page Illustration of Apparatus for Samples. 
Phenol. Phenolphtalein. 
Sp. g. Specific gravity. 




TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Preface 

References Consulted . ^ .".'. : . ....... 4 

Abbreviations and Contractions 5 



PART I. 
SUGAR ANALYSIS. 

CHAPTER I. 
INSTRUMENTS FOR ANALYSIS AND THEIR USE. 

Cylinders. Specific gravity. Hydrometers. Sucrose 
Pipettes. Flasks. Funnels and filter paper. 
Beakers. Polariscopes. Scales. Other apparatus . 17-42 

CHAPTER II. 

GENERAL METHODS OF ANALYSIS. 
Introductory. Preparation of samples. Clarification. 
Volumetric method. Pipette test. The Gravimeter. 
Analysis by weight. Non-normal analysis. Quotient 
of purity. Value Coefficient. Saline quotient. The 
rendement 43-52 

CHAPTER III. 

INDIVIDUAL SUGAR ANALYSIS. 

Beets. Cossettes. Wet pulp. Pressed pulp. Waste 
water. Diffusion juice. Lime cakes. Thin juices. 
Sweet waters. Thick juice. Syrups. Massecuites 
and Sugars 55-71 



8 TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER IV. 

LIME, ALKALINITIES AND SATURATION GAS. 
Lime, milk of lime, alkalinities, CO 2 in saturation gas . 72-77 

CHAPTER V. 

STEFFENS' PROCESS ANALYSES. 

Saccharate of lime. Waste waters. Molasses sacchar- 

ate Molasses solution. Saccharate milk .... 78-81 

CHAPTER VI. 
INVERT SUGAR AND RAFFINOSE. 

The correct percentage of Sucrose. Sucrose in the pres- 
ence of Invert Sugar. Sucrose in the presence of 
Raffinose. Percentage of Raffinose. Invert Sugar. 
Soxhlet's exact method 82-88 



PART II. 
ANALYSIS OF SUPPLIES AND OTHER CHEMICAL WORK. 

CHAPTER VII. 
APPARATUS FOR CHEMICAL ANALYSIS. 

Beakers. Glass rods. Funnels. Filter paper. Dessica- 
tors. Crucibles and dishes. Lamps and stoves. 
Other apparatus 90-94 

CHAPTER VIII. 
Water Analysis 95-108 

CHAPTER IX. 
Limestone Analysis 109-113 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 9 

CHAPTER X. 
Coal, Coke and Fuel Oil 114-118 

CHAPTER XI. 
Analysis of Boneblack . . 119-127 

CHAPTER XII. 
Analysis of Chimney Gases . . . . 

CHAPTER XIII. 
Analysis of Fertilizers . . ;r . 134-140 

CHAPTER XIV. 
Analysis of Refuse Lime .... 141-144 

CHAPTER XV. 
Analysis of Syrup or Massecuite Ash . 145-150 

CHAPTER XVI. 
MISCELLANEOUS ANALYSES. 

Beet seed. Sulphur. Anhydrous ammonia. Lubricating 

oils. Fluxes and rust joints. Crude acids. Soda . 151-164 



PART III. 
PREPARATION OF REAGENTS. 

CHAPTER XVII. 
Preparation of Reagents . 166-174 



10 TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PART IV. 
TABLES. 

TABLE I. 
Brix temperature correction 176-177 

TABLE II. 

Comparison of degrees Brix and Baume and specific 

Gravity 178-189 

TABLE III. 
For making "known sugar" solutions 190 

TABLE IV. 
Per cent, sugar in pulp by the volumetric method . . . 191 

TABLE V. 

Estimation of percentage of sugar by volumetric method, 
for use with solution prepared by addition of 10 per 
cent, lead acetate 192-199 

TABLE VI. 
For the determination of coefficients of purity .... 200-203 

TABLE VII. 
For determining per cent. CaO in lime with normal acid . 204 

TABLE VIII. 
CaO with a normal acid 205 

TABLE IX. 
Comparison of thermometric scales 206-207 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. II 

TABLE X. 
Partial list of atomic weights 208 

TABLE XI. 
Factors used in qualitative analysis 209-210 

TABLE XII. 

Tables for the conversion of metric weights and measures 
into customary United States equivalents and the re- 
verse . 211-220 



INDEX. 
Index 221-224 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 
Advertisements . 225-243 



APPARATUS IN FRONTISPIECE. 

1 and 2. Siphon bottles for water and lead acetate. 

3. Porcelain evaporating dish. 

4. Sieve for lime samples. 

5. Test tubes and rack for alkalinity samples. 

6 Griffin beaker. 

7. Conical assay flask. 

8. Ether or indicator bottle. 

9. Dessicator. 

10 and 11. Mortars for chemical analysis. 
12. Mortar for lime-cake analysis. 
13. Siphon bottle for acetic acid. 
14 Alkalinity sampler. 

15. Scale for lime-cakes. * 

16. Box with weights. 
17. Flasks for sugar analysis. 
18 German silver scoop. 
19. Sucrose pipette. 

20 Burette stand with Mohr's burettes. 

21 Westphal specific gravity balance. 
22.- Tin cylinder. 

23. Glass cylinder. 

24. Tumbler for dissolving samples. 

25. Spatula for saccharate samples. 
26 and 30. Test tubes with foot. 

27 Thermometer. 
28 and 29 Hydrometers. 

31 Beaker with lip. 

32. Air funnel for syrup test. 

33 Coal oil lamp stove. 

34. Beaker without lip. 

35. Alkalinity apparatus. 

36. 20 CC cup for measuring alkalinity samples. 
37 and 37 1 Washing bottles. 

38 Student's lamp. 

39. Graduate. 

40. Polarization tubes. 

41. Schmidt and Haensch polariscope. 

42. Polarization tube with water jacket and introduced 

thermometer. 

43 and 43 1 Siphon arrangement for cooling solution in polariza- 
tion tube. 




CHAPTER I. 

INSTRUMENTS FOR ANALYSIS AND THEIR USE. 

1. Cylinders are the most convenient vessels for hold- 
ing solutions to be tested. For syrups, massecuites, cos- 
settes, and other regular laboratory tests, use glass cylinders 
about 12 inches high and 2 inches in diameter, without 
a lip. (Fig. 1.) For beet tests use tin cylinders about 10J 




3 



J_ 



Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. 

inches high and 1^ inches in diameter, having a form 
similar to Fig. 3. For Steffens' hot waste water and other 
solutions having a low brix, a 10-inch test tube 1 inch in 
diameter may be used. The Steffens' cold waste water 
sample is usually a small one, on account of the trouble in 
filtering a large sample, and its density may be taken in a 
6x^ test tube, preferably one with a foot (Fig. 2), the 
hydrometer used being the Brix 5-9 described in 2b. In 
using a cylinder or a test tube, incline it slightly and pour 
in the solution down the sides to avoid foam. In cossette 



1 8 INSTRUMENTS FOR ANALYSIS AND THEIR USE. 

and beet juices .the air, which is usually contained, will 
come to the top and the bubbles formed may be skimmed 
off with a spoon. A little ether may be used in allaying 
any unavoidable foam, but it should always be allowed to 
evaporate, as it influences the reading of the hydrometer. 

POINTERS. 

Clean glass cylinders immediately after using. 

Tin cylinders should be cleaned thoroughly with a rag every 
day when in use. If dirt is left in them it will ferment. 

Do not make a habit of using ether to allay foam in cylinders. 
Use it only when absolutely necessary. 

The cylinder in use should always be set on a level place. 

2. Specific Gravity* There are a number of instru- 
ments made for determining exact specific gravity, one of 
the best of which is the Westphal balance shown in F. 
21. However, the author's experience has been that for 
beet sugar laboratory work there is no method as practi- 
cal as actual weighing. 

(a) The Pycnometer, a glass flask with a long tubular 
stopper (Fig. 4) is made for this purpose. The best size is 
made to hold 50 CC of distilled 
water at 17^C. This is also 
considered to be 50^. The 
gramme is equal in weight to 
l cc of water weighed in vacuo 
at its maximum density 4C. 
It is more practical in sugar 
work to take 17^4, and polar- 
iscopes are constructed for solu- 
tions made up at this tempera- 
ture. To find the specific grav- 
ity>of any solution, thoroughly 
clean and dry the pycnometer Fig. 4. 




INSTRUMENTS FOR ANALYSIS AND THEIR USE. 1 9 

and weigh. Then fill with the Quid at 17^C M seeing that 
no air is contained. Put in the stopper and wipe off care- 
fully any solution that comes through the tube. Weigh 
again and subtract the weight of the pycnometer to find 
the weight of the solution. Multiply this by two, and 
remove the decimal point two places to the left to find the 
specific gravity. 



Example : 

Weight of pycnometer and fluid 78.642 gr. 

Weight of pycnometer 26.856 gr. 



Weight of fluid 51.786 gr. 

Multiplying by 2 



103.572 gr. 
Moving decimal point two places 1.03572 sp. g. 



The specific gravity of a liquid or a solid is the ratio of 
its weight to the weight ot the same volume of water. In 
the example given the weight of the fluid is 51.786 gr . 
and the weight of the same volume of water is 50 gr . 
50:51.786::! :x, or x = 51.786-7-50= 1.03572. If 100 CC 
were taken, the division by 100 would be accomplished by 
moving the decimal point two places to the left. As this 
figuring is much easier, we can multiply by two and con- 
sider that 100 has been taken instead of 50. 

Common 50 CC flasks can be used instead of pycnom- 
eters and, in fact, are more practical for most analyses, the 



20 INSTRUMENTS FOR ANALYSIS AND THEIR USE. 

only advantage in the latter being that the stopper pre- 
vents evaporation. In using a flask, select one with as 
small a neck as possible and cut off about a quarter of an 
inch above the mark. Test by weighing it in 50 gr of water 
atl?iC. (See 4.) 

(b) Hydrometers are used for determining the dens- 
sity of fluids in analysis and in factory work. The 
Brix hydrometer is used for analysis. It is graduated 
according to a scale, by which it indicates the percentage 
by weight of sugar when immersed in a solution of pure 
sugar. (See 19.) It is properly called a "Saccharometer." 
The Balling saccharometer is the same as the Brix. The 
Beaume hydrometer is generally used for taking the 
density of thick fluids in the work of the factory. It is a 
specific gravity hydrometer, graduated according to an 
arbitrary scale adopted by Antoine Beaume, a Parisian 
chemist. He dissolved 15 parts of common salt (by 
weight) in 85 parts of water. The point to which the 
hydrometer sunk in this solution was marked 15 and the 
scale between this and zero was divided into 15 parts, 
divisions of the same size then being made from the 15 
below to the bulb. The Beaume hydrometer for liquids 
lighter than water (See 76) also has a salt solution for its 
basis. The point on the stem to which it sinks in water is 
marked 10 and the zero is the point where it stands in a 
solution of 10 parts common salt and 90 parts water. This 
is divided into 10 parts, the same divisions then being 
made on the rest of the scale up to 100. 

The Beaume hydrometer best adapted to general fac- 
tory work is graduated from to 50 in % degrees. Of the 



INSTRUMENTS FOR ANALYSIS AND THEIR USE. 21 

Brix and Balling saccharometers there should be 
a well selected variety. The 30 to 60 in 1-5 degrees 
and the 60 to 100 in ^ degrees may be used for 
taking densities in factory work. Sweet waters 
are taken with a 5 to + 5 Brix, graduated in y? 
degrees. For beet analysis an instrument grad- 
uated from 10 to 30, or 10 to 20, in 1-10 degrees 
is used ; for cossettes and sugarhouse analyses one 
graduated from 10 to 20 in 1-10 degrees (See Fig. 
5) ; for diffusion juice one graduated from 5 to 15 
in 1-10 degrees, and for waste waters one from 
to 5 in 1-10 degrees. A Brix graduated from to 
25 in 1-10 degrees is an excellent instrument for 
general work, and it may be used for nearly all 
analyses. Many chemists prefer it for beet analy- 
sis. When the Steffens process is used the best 
saccharometer for cold waste waters is the 5 to 9 
Brix graduated in 1-10 degrees. The instrument 
has a bulb 2^ inches long and ^ inch in diame- 
ter, and is especially adapted for the test tube de- 
scribed in 1. 1 * When a special saccharometer 
is desired for hot waste waters, an instrument 
graduated from 3 to 7 in 1-10 degrees may be ob- 
tained. All instruments should be made for a 
temperature of 17^C. 

In taking the density ot a solution with a 
hydrometer, it must be entirely free from air 
bubbles. Have the instrument clean and dry 
Fig. 5. before using and immerse it carefully in the 
fluid, keeping it from touching the sides of 
the cylinder. T-! When it has come to rest, read the 
graduation. The fluid is raised around the stem of the 
instrument by capillary attraction and the correct reading 



22 



INSTRUMENTS FOR ANALYSIS AND THEIR USE. 




is at the bottom of this, being on a level with the top of 
the solution. In Fig. 6 the correct reading is 11.0 instead 
of 10.8, as it appears to be. In taking 
the density of a solution, the temper- 
ature is taken at the same time. If a 
solution is colder or hotter than normal 
temperature it is obvious that its density 
is greater or less than normal, so that 
a correction must be made for tem- 
perature.* (See Table I.) 

Hydrometers are most easily tested 
by immersing them in a solution the 
specific gravity of which is known 
and comparing the reading with the 
sp. g. (See Table II.) It is a good plan 
Fig. 6. to have at least three "control" saccha- 

rometers graduated from to 10, 10 to 20, and 20 to 30, in 
1-10 degrees. These instruments, when found to be abso- 
lutely accurate, may be used for testing other saccharom- 
eters by comparison. 

POINTERS. 

Keep the hydrometers in an earthen slop jar or tin bucket 
filled with water and having a sheet of rubber covering the bottom. 

Do not buy saccharometers with short, thick bulbs. They 
cannot be used with accuracy in a cylinder of the size that is most 
practical for sugar work. The 10-20 Brix, which is most often used, 
should have a bulb about 4^ inches long and a 6-inch stem. 

GO The Dry Substance is the percentage of total solids 
found by weight. It is generally determined in order to 
find the "real purity" (See 19) of syrups and masse- 

* Taking the density of a hot solution isjiot as accurate as taking it after the 
solution has cooled to nearly normal temperature. In a hot solution the tem- 
perature may change during the operation and the correction for temperature 
will be incorrect. 



INSTRUMENTS FOR ANALYSIS AND THEIR USE. 23 

cuites. To find the dry substance, weigh a scoop con- 
taining about 15* r of powdered glass orsand(See 14O) and 
a small glass rod to be used for stirring. Add about 2 gr 
of the substance to be tested and weigh again. Mix the 
sand (or glass) and the substance thoroughly by using the 
glass rod. Place in a drying oven for two hours and keep 
a temperature of 100C, but be careful that it does not get 
higher. Then, after cooling in a dessicator, weigh and 
return to drying oven. Repeat this until the scoop and 
contents has a constant weight, i. e., that there is no fur- 
ther loss by drying, proving that all the water has been 
driven off. Determine the amount of water lost by sub- 
tracting the weight after drying from the weight before 
drying. The weight of the water lost divided by the 
weight of the substance used will give the per cent, of 
water lost, and subtracting this from 100 will give the per 
cent, of dry substance. 

Example : 

Weight of scoop, sand, rod, and substance 51.613 gr. 

Weight of scoop, sand, and rod 49.381 gr. 

Subtracting, gives weight of substance , 2.232 gr. 

Weight of scoop and contents before drying 51.613 gr. 

Weight of scoop and contents after drying 51.402 pr. 

Subtracting, gives weight of water lost 211 gr. 

.211-^2.232= 0945=9.45 per cent, of water lost. 
1009.45=90.55 per cent, dry substance. 

3. Sucrose Pipettes are in general use in this country 
for most analyses, although they have not been adopted in 
Europe. (See 1O). They are so made that when a solu- 
tion is drawn into the pipette to the graduation correspond- 
ing to the reading of the brix of the solution the 
amount of solution in the pipette will weigh 52.096* r . 



INSTRUMENTS FOR ANALYSIS AND THEIR USE- 



For 
iucrose 



The instrument should be graduated from 10 to 
25. (Fig. 7.) In using a pipette, first rinse it 
inside with the solution to be tested and then draw 
in the solution, by aspiration, to the graduation 
corresponding to the reading of the brix* ; let the 
solution drop into the 100 CC flask and run a stream 
of water through the pipette, to wash every 
particle of the solution 
into the flask. In wash- 
ing the pipette, hold the 
flask in the third and 
little fingers of the left 
hand, using the index 
finger and thumb to 
twirl the instrument 
while the water is pass- 
ing through. (See Fig. 
8.) In testing a pipette, 
if a solution of a known 
brix is drawn in to the 
proper graduation and 
dropped into the scoop 
of a scale or tared vessel, 
if its weight is nearly, 
but not quite, 52.096*' 
the pipette may be ad- 
judged correct. 

Fig. 7. 

POINTERS. 

To read the graduation in a 
pipette, always take the bottom of 
the meniscus, the same as in a flask . 
(See Fig. 9.) 

* This refers to the reading without temperature correction 





INSTRUMENTS FOR ANALYS 



Be sure there are no bubbles in the pipette. They will come 
to the top if present, and can be drawn out into the mouth. 

Pipettes in constant use should be thoroughly cleaned every few 
days. Rinse with gun shot and diluted muriatic acid. Pipettes 
used for beet analysis should be cleaned every evening with gun- 
shot and strong muriatic acid. 

The graduations on a pipette may be more easily observed 
if red lead is rubbed into the marks. Take a small ball of red lead 
and rub it up and down the graduations. Wipe off with a cloth 
and the lead will remain in the marks. Chalk or lamp-black (mixed 
with turpentine) may be used for the same purpose. 

4. Flasks for Sugar Analysis are graduated to hold 
50 CC , 50 and 55 CC , 100 CC , 100 and 110 CC , and 201.4 and 221.4 CC . 
The last is for beet analysis (See 23C), and should have 
a neck wide at the top and narrowing down to the gradua- 
tion. The 100-110 flask should have a neck ^ of an inch 
in diameter, but the other flasks should all be small-necked 
for accurate work. When the 100-110 flask is used for any 
other volumetric (14) analysis than pulp 
it should also have a small neck. In filling 
flasks let the bottom of the meniscus of the 
fluid come to the graduation. (See fig 9.) 
This rule also applies to the reading of 
pipettes and burettes. Any foam that 
forms in a flask may be gotten rid of by 
the use of ether. The bottle shown in F 
8 is a convenient ether bottle. A small 
glass tube is fitted in a ground glass 
stopper, and is of such length that when 
the stopper is in the bottle, the tube reaches 
nearly but not quite to the bottom. Ether 
is taken from the bottle by put- 
Fig. 9. ting a finger over the top of the 
tube, as with a pipette. The dropping bottle 
shown in Fig. 10 is often used for ether, but it 
is not as good as the one above described. Fig. 10. 





26 INSTRUMENTS FOR ANALYSIS AND THEIR USE. 

To test a flask, clean and dry it thoroughly, weigh, fill 
with water at 17^C to the mark, and weigh again. The 
weight of the water should be as many gr. as the flask 
holds cc. (See 2a.) It is usual to test all flasks 
as soon as they are purchased and either of the fol- 
lowing methods will be found quick and accurate when a 
large number of flasks are to be tested. 

Test a flask by water as above, to use as a standard. 
Fill it with clean mercury to the mark. Clean and dry all 
flasks to be tested,* then pour the mercury into each one 
until all are tested. The mercury for this method must be 
perfectly clean and dry. The writer has always found it 
advisable to test 4 or 5 flasks and then return the mercury 
to the standard flask, to be sure that none has been lost. 
Keep the flask in a clean mortar while pouring in the mer- 
cury, to prevent loss in case of accident. 

The following method by pipette is preferable to the 
use of mercury in the fact that it is more rapid, although 
greater care must be exercised. Use a pipette graduated 
for the same number of cc as the flasks to be tested. 
Determine its accuracy by filling to the mark with water 
at 17 ^C, then letting the water run out into a tared ves- 
sel. Gently blow through the pipette, so that no drops of 
water remain. The weight should be l gr for every cc 
for which the pipette is graduated, and if it is either more 
or less, find by repeated weighings where the mark should 
be to make the pipette hold the exact number of gr., and 
re-mark accordingly. To test a flask, clean and dry it 
thoroughly; fill the pipette to the mark with water at 17^C, 
wiping the outside dry, and let the water run into the 
flask, blowing out the last drops. For flasks having two 

* After cleaning the flask with water, rinse it with a small amount of alcohol 
or ether and it will dry quickly. 



INSTRUMENTS FOR ANALYSIS AND THEIR USE. 27 

graduations, determine the correctness of the lower 
mark as above and add immediately, with .a smaller 
pipette, the number of cc of water for which the addi- 
tional mark is made. Any flasks which are found to be 
incorrect by at least two tests should be re-marked. 

POINTERS. 

Be sparing in the use of ether. It is usually sufficient to hold 
the end of the ether bottle tube in the foam. 

Flasks may be kept conveniently by inverting them over wooden 
pegs driven in the edge of the shelf over the analyst's table. The 
pegs should be about three inches high, about 5-16 inch in diameter, 
and should incline at a slight angle toward the operator. 

A quarter inch glass tube six inches long may be used as a 
pipette for taking out the extra solution whenever, in analysis, a 
flask is accidentally filled above the mark. 

5. Funnels and Filter Paper. Funnels for sugar analy- 
sis should be about 3 ^ inches in diameter and ot either 
glass or hard rubber. The rubber funnel is much more 
serviceable, but most chemists prefer the glass funnel, as 
dirt or sugar can be detected on the latter more readily 
than on the former. The stems on funnels should not be 
more than half an inch long. 

Filter paper should be in sheets 23 inches square. 
When a sheet of this size is cut into nine equal square 
parts, each part folded will be of the proper size for use in 
analysis. After folding, cut each filter paper round and of 
such size that the edges will not extend above the funnel. 
Heavy white paper is the best for sugar analysis ; gray 
paper is much cheaper but it filters too slowly. 

POINTERS. 

In trimming filter papers save the scraps for cleaning polariza- 
tion tubes. 

When a solution filters slowly, cover the funnel with a watch 
glass to prevent evaporation. 

Creasing a filter paper makes a solution filter faster. 



28 INSTRUMENTS FOR ANALYSIS AND THEIR USK. 

6. Beakers to receive the filtrates in analysis are 
usually small common glass tumbers, which are lipped in 
the laboratory where they are employed. Tumblers of the 
following size will be found very convenient: Three 
inches high, two inches inside bottom diameter, and two 
and one-half inches inside top diameter. The writer has 
used tumblers slightly smaller than this, each measure- 
ment being an eighth of an inch less, and believes that 
they cannot be excelled for practical work. They each 
weigh about 92 gr . Lips are not at all necessary on beakers 
of this size. (See F 34.) Another good form of beaker 
is shown in F 31. It is 4 inches high, with a diameter 
of \y( inches at the top and of 2^ inches at the bottom, 
inside measurement. One American factory tried alumi- 
num beakers, but found them unsatisfactory as they were 
too hard to clean. 

POINTERS. 

Discard the first few drops of a filtrate. 

When the filtrate of syrups and juices is too dark to be read in 
the polariscope, add about 1 gr. of finely powdered bone dust to the 
filter paper and filter again. As the bone dust may absorb a small 
amount of sugar, discard the first half of the second filtrate. 

Beakers are more easily cleaned with cold water than with hot, 
on account of the lead on them. (J. E. VARNER.) They must be 
thoroughly dried. 

7. (a) Polariscopes.* When a ray of light passes 
through a crystal of Iceland spar it is divided into two rays 
of equal intensity, one of which is called the ordinary ray 
and the other the extraordinary ray. The former is in 
the principal plane and the latter is in a plane at right 
angles to the principal plane. When the rays possess this 

* The explanation of the polariscope here given is necessarily very brief. 
The student is referred to Ganot's Physics or I^andolt's Handbook of the Polar- 
iscope for a complete and clear description of the instrument. 



INSTRUMENTS FOR ANALYSIS AND THEIR USE. 2Q 

peculiarity they are said to be polarized. Polarization may 
also be effected by reflection, as on water, mirrors, etc. In 
most polariscopes the light is polarized by means of a 
Nicol's prism which is so constructed that it transmits only 
one ray, while the other is suppressed by reflection out of 
the prism. The prism is placed in the polariscope so that 
the transmitted ray goes straight through the instrument. 
Two lenses are used to intensify the light from the lamp 
before it meets the Nicol's prism. The use of the polar- 
ized ray may be described as follows : 

Polariscopes designed for sugar analysis (called saccha- 
rimeters) are based on what is termed rotatory polarization. 
This is the effect produced by certain substances (most 
notably quartz) and solutions (e. g., sugar) which have the 
power of rotating to a different degree the planes of polari- 
zation of the various colored rays which compose white 
light. To illustrate : If a thin section of a quartz crystal 
cut at right angles to its axis is placed so that a ray of 
polarized light passes through it and falls upon a mirror, 
the image of the quartz will appear in color in the mirror. 
If the mirror is on an angle and is slowly turned, the colors 
of the image will change and appear in the same order as 
is found in the solar spectrum red, yellow, green, blue 
and violet. In some varieties of quartz these colors are 
shown in the order named when the mirror is turned to the 
right, and in others when it is turned to the left. Violet 
rotates the plane of polarization to the greatest degree and 
red to the least, and the extent of the rotation depends 
upon the thickness of the quartz plate which is traversed. 
Sugar solutions have the power of rotating planes of 
polarization,, and, as in the case of quartz crystals, some 
solutions rotate the plane to the right and others to the 
left. The former are said to be dextrogyrate, as sucrose 



30 INSTRUMENTS FOR ANALYSIS AND THEIR USE. 

and raffinose, and the latter laevogyrate, as laevulose and 
sorbinose. The rotatory power of a concentrated sugar 
solution is only about 1-36 of that of quartz, hence the 
column of solution to be traversed by the polarized light 
must be of considerable length. The plane of the polar- 
ized light is rotated to a greater or less extent, according to 
the concentration or dilution of the solution. Sacchari- 
meters are constructed so that this angle of rotation may 
be determined. After the polarized light passes through 
the column of sugar of known length it is met by a layer 
of quartz which has a variable thickness and can be moved 
either to the right or to the left, to compensate for the 
rotation produced by the sugar solution. This movement 
is effected by means of a rackwork and pinion turned by a 
milled head, and as the plate is moved its thickness at the 
point where the light passes through is measured by a 
scale. The thickness of a plate necessary to compensate 
the rotation of a definite amount of pure sugar made up in 
a certain way is marked as 100 on the scale, and the thick- 
ness of the plate which gives a clear view when no active 
substance is in the polariscope, is marked as zero.- The 
scale is then sub-divided into 100 parts, and when a solu- 
tion of sugar prepared in the necessary way, is read in the 
instrument, the scale not only measures the thickness of the 
plate which compensates for the rotation of the solution, 
but in doing so shows the percentage of sugar the solution 
contains. The reading of this scale will be described 
later. After passing through the movable plate the light 
meets a double refracting prism (usually a Nicol's prism) 
which is called the analyzer. This prism gives a field of 
vision by which the polar iscopist, in reading the instru- 
ment, can tell when the movable quartz plate is in proper 
position. This field is circular and is divided in half by a 



INSTRUMENTS FOR ANALYSIS AND THEIR USE. 31 

perpendicular line. The observation of it is described in 
the next paragraph. 

The optical arrangement of a single compensation 
Schmidt and Haensch polariscope,* is shown in the follow- 
ing figure : 




1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 

Fig. 11. 

1. Eye-piece. 

2. Objective. 

3. Nicol prism, analyzer. 

4. Quartz wedge, fixed, bearing vernier. 

5. Quartz wedge, moveable, bearing scale. 

6. Quartz wedge, having rotatory power opposite to 4 and 5. 

7. Nicol prism, polarizer. 

8. Lens. 

9. Lens. * 

In Fig. 12, the arrangement of the double compensa- 
tion polariscope is shown. The two prisms /N1 and /\2 
are of opposite rotatory power, one being dextro- and the 
other laevo-rotary. At H is the screw for adjusting the 
analyzer. The screw for setting the scale (see next para- 
graph,) is on the left side of the instrument, between the 
two moveable wedges. The inclined mirror above K is one 
of the latest Schmidt and Haensch improvements, and is 
for the purpose of doing away with a second lamp for read- 
ing the scale. 

* The Schmidt and Haensch polariscope is the only instrument described 
here, as it has been adopted by the U. S. Government, and most of the sugar 
factories in operation in this country. 



32 INSTRUMENTS FOR ANALYSIS AND THEIR USE. 




INSTRUMENTS FOR ANALYSIS AND THEIR USE. 33 

(.b) Operation. Adjust the lamp so that it gives a 
bright steady light. Turn the polariscope towards the 
lamp and look through the telescope J. (See Fig. 12.) A 
round luminous field will be seen, and the telescope should 
be focused by moving it in or out until the field is clear, 
and has a well defined line passing through the center. 
One side of the line may be darker than the other, but by 
turning the milled head which operates the moveable 
quartz plate the two halves of the field may be made to 
have an equal intensity of light. 






E. 
Fig. 13. 

In Fig. 13 R shows a picture of the field when the 
milled head must be turned to the right (the thumb of the 
hand moving toward the lamp) to effect neutrality, L a 
picture when it must be turned in the opposite direction 
and E shows the field when neutral. 

When the vision is that illustrated in E, look through 
the reading glass K (see Fig. 12,) and read the scale. The 
small scale appearing above is called the "vernier," and 
its zero should exactly correspond to the zero of the larger 
scale below. If they are not in line, they should be made 
to coincide by turning the nipple, provided for the pur- 
pose. This should be done only by some one acquainted 
with the polariscope, as in single compensation instru- 
ments this screw is easily mistaken for the screw in con- 
nection with the analyzer. 




34 



INSTRUMENTS FOR ANALYSIS AND THEIR USE. 



Now fill a polarization tube with a properly prepared 
solution (see next paragraph,) and place it in the polar- 
iscope. Make the observation as above, bringing the two 
halves of the field of vision to an equal shade. Then make 
the reading. Find the number of whole degrees the zero 
of the scale has moved from the zero of the vernier. In 
Fig. 14 it is 29. To determine the tenths, note the point 





10 







. 









1 1 1 1 


1 1 1 1 


1 1 1 




1 1 1 1 






y 


111! 


1 1 1 1 


1 1 1 1 


1 1 






Ml! 


1 ! 1 



Fig. 14. 

at which a line on the vernier coincides with a line on the 
scale. In this illustration it is at 4. Therefore, the read- 
ing is 29.4, and the solution read contains 29.4 per cent, 
of sugar. 

A polariscope fitted with the double compensators and 
two scales, gives four checks on the correctness of the 
reading. The upper scale and the milled head which 
moves it are black. The lower scale is red, and its milled 
head brass. In making a test, set the red scale at zero and 
use the black scale. Then remove the polarization tube 
from the instrument and make the field neutral by using 
the brass screw. The readings of the two scales should 
correspond. For an invert reading, set the black scale at 
zero and use the red scale. 

(c) Testing a Polariscope. No instrument should be 
used unless it has been found to be accurate. The exami- 
nation is most easily made by means of the control-tube or 
quartz plates. The control-tube can be lengthened or 



INSTRUMENTS FOR ANALYSIS AND THEIR USE. 35 

shortened and, as a scale is attached which shows the length 
of the tube in millimeters, the reading which the instrument 
ought to give may be easily calculated. If quartz testing 
plates are used, their value should be determined by check 
analyses, e.g-., with cc "known sugar" solutions. Table III 
gives the number of gr. of chemically pure sugar which 
must be made up to 100 CC to give any desired polariscope 
reading. By the use of the control-tube, quartz testing 
plates, and <c known sugar" solutions, it may easily be de- 
termined whether the instrument, is correct for readings on 
all points of the scale. Uneven quartz wedges will make 
a polariscope accurate for some readings and inaccurate for 
others. 

The accuracy of the zero point may be found by read- 
ing the instrument itself, and a solution of chemically pure 
sugar may be used for the 100 mark. Chemically pure 
sugar is prepared as follows : 

Wash a quantity of the best granulated sugar repeatedly with 
an 85 per cent, alcohol. Three to five times the volume of sugar is 
sufficient alcohol to use. After washing, dry the sugar thoroughly 
at 100 degrees Centigrade and keep in an air-tight jar. 26.048 
grammes of this sugar dissolved in 100 CC of water at 17^ C should 
have a specific gravity of I.IIII. 

In the laboratory, a polariscope that is accurate under 
normal conditions may become incorrect through the 
influence of heat or some other cause. The instrument 
should be thoroughly examined at least once a week, and 
each chemist should read for the zero point at least twice a 
day, say at the beginning of each half-day. These exami- 
nations ought to be sufficient to insure its accuracy. 

(d) Tubes and Weights. The Schmidt and Haensch 
polariscopes are so constructed that 26.048 gr of chemi- 



36 INSTRUMENTS FOR ANALYSIS AND THEIR USE. 

cally pure sugar dissolved in 100 CC of water will read 100 
in the polariscope, when a polarization tube 200 mm long is 
used, in sugar analysis, when these instruments are used, 
26.048 r is called "normal weight," 13.024* r "half nor- 
mal weight," and 52.096* r "double normal weight." A 
polarization tube 100 mm long is called a "half tube," and 
one 400 mm long a " double tube," the "normal" tube being 
200 mm . Any one of these weights and tubes may be used 
in analysis, but it is always best to use the largest weight and 
longest tube practicable. All readings must be figured on 
a basis of normal weight and normal tube, hence if a 
shorter tube or a lower weight is used, the reading must be 
multiplied, and if a larger weight or a longer tube is used 
the reading must be divided. In case of an error, if the 
reading is multiplied the error is multiplied, and if the 
reading is divided the error is divided. In very dark solu- 
tions the half tube must sometimes be used, and when there 
is only a small amount obtainable of the solution to be 
analyzed, half normal weight must be used. In general 
the most practical combination is double normal weight and 
normal tube. The double tube cannot be used accurately 
except with very light solutions. All readings may be 
figured to normal by the following table : 



length of Tube 
Used. 


Weight Used. 


To Make Normal. 


100mm- 


13.024 


Multiply by 4. 




100mm, 


26.048 


Multiply by 2. 




100 :nm . 


52.096 


Reading shows 


per cent, sugar. 


200mm. 


13.024 


Multiply by 2. 




200mm. 


26.048 


Reading shows 


per cent, sugar. 


200mm. 


52.096 


Divide by 2. 




400mm 


13024 


Reading shows 


per cent, sugar. 


400mm. 


26.048 


Divide by 2. 




400mm . 


52. OH 6 


Divide bv 4. 





INSTRUMENTS FOR ANALYSIS AND THEIR USE. 37 

The continuous polarization tube (Fig. 15) may be used 
when a large number of solutions of comparatively the same 
sugar content are to be tested, as in beet analysis. A 





Fig. 15. 

funnel is fitted to one end and a rubber tube is attached to 
the other, the opposite end of the tube being in a bucket on 
the table when the tube is in the instrument. The solu- 
tion to be read is poured in the funnel, the surplus fluid 
going out of the tube. After reading, the next solution is 
poured in the funnel, and so on. The use of this tube 
saves a great deal of time in beet tests and the results are 
accurate. 

POINTERS : 

The preparation and polarization of a solution should be made 
at the same temperature. 

Readings are made more quickly when the polariscope is cov- 
ered with a box, or is in a place darkened by curtains. 

The lamp should be about 200 mm from the end of the polari- 





38 INSTRUMENTS FOR ANALYSIS AND THEIR USE. 

scope and the instrument should be protected 
from the heat by a wooden partition or screen , 
with an opening about ^ of an inch in diam- 
eter for the light to pass through. (See F 44.) 

When gas is obtainable, the lamp shown 
in Fig. 16 is a good form to use. It may be 
raised or lowered on the stand A. The 
shade B gives a concentrated light. The 
Students' is a good oil lamp. (See F. 38.) 

Always turn the polariscope away from the 
light when you have finished reading. Heat 
affects the cement holding the prisms. 

Polarization tube discs (glasses) sometimes cause 
inaccurate readings. They may be tested by putting 
them in polarization tubes and reading for the zero 
point. 

Do not screw on the ends of the polarization tube 
too tight. The compression of the discs may make 
them double refracting, and the reading will be wrong- Fig. 16. 

Discs may be wiped off with the pocket handkerchief. It is 
the quickest way to clean them. A scrap of filter paper is also 
good. 

Rinsing the tube three times is nearly always sufficient to 
insure its cleanliness. This, of course, means to rinse it with the 
solution to be read. 

In every test with a single compensation polariscope, make 
three readings and take the average. Rest the eye for 15 or 20 sec- 
onds after each reading. 

When the zero point in an instrument is .1 or .2 wrong it is 
unnecessary to adjust it, but a correction must be made for read- 
ings. If, instead of the polariscope showing zero, it shows .2 then 
.2 should be subtracted from every reading of solutions, and vice 
versa. Thus, if the reading is 18.6, the correct reading would be 
18.4, because the polariscope shows .2 more sugar than is really 
contained, and if the zero point is .2 to the left then 18.6 would be 
18.8, for the polariscope shows .2 less than is really contained. 

Bach analysist doing general work should have two or three 
polarization tubes, to be used for special tests. For example, a tube 
for only pulp and waste waters, one for cosettes, syrups, etc., and 
one for high tests, such as sugars and massecuites. 



INSTRUMENTS FOR ANALYSIS AND THEIR USE. 39 

8. Scales. Four different kinds of scales are neces- 
sary in beet sugar analysis. The common scale with plat- 
form and scoop is used for weighing beet samples, a 
druggists' balance is most convenient for weighing lime 
cakes, a balance having a carrying capacity of 300 gr and 
sensible to l mg is necessary for sugar analysis and spe- 
cific gravity determinations, and a delicate balance with 
agate bearings made for a charge of 100 gr and sensible to 
l-20 mg is used for finer analytical work. These scales 
are shown respectively in Figs. 26, 30, 24 and 41. 

To test the sensibility and accuracy of a balance, first 
adjust it properly by its regulating screws. The smallest 
weight the balance is sensible to is placed on one scale pan 
and the balance must turn very distinctly. Each pan is 
then charged to its full carrying capacity and the small 
weight added again. The balance will oscillate more 
slowly than before, but should turn to the same extent. 

Place the same weight, say 50 gr , on each scale pan, 
and if necessary adjust the scale so that the index for mark- 
ing oscillations will be exactly in the middle. Interchange 
the weights and the balance should remain in equilibrium. 
Remove the weights and set the balance in slight motion. 
It must resume its original equilibrium. Load one scale 
pan and repeated weighings of it should give same result. 

The regular weights used for analytical purposes and 
sugar weights (normal, half normal and double normal) 
should be verified" when purchased, but if taken care of 
properly they are not liable to either lose or gain in weight, 
and need not be tested unless there is special reason to be- 
lieve they have been affected. Scoops constantly lose in 
weight by daily use, and the counterpoise weights must be 



INSTRUMENTS FOR ANALYSIS AND THEIR USE. 



repeatedly filed down. If any weight is too light, un- 
screw the plug on top and insert tinfoil. If it is too 
heavy, file off the surplus weight. 

POINTERS. 

Do not touch weights with the fingers. 

FRESBNIUS says : "The balance ought to be arrested every time 
any change is contemplated, such as removing weights, substituting 
one weight for another, etc., or it will soon get spoiled." 

A substance when hot creates a draught upward and, if weighed, 
its weight is less than it would be at normal temperature. 

Weights should be kept in a box away from the fumes of acid, 
but the tarnishing coat which forms on brass weights is so extrerm ly 
thin that it is of no consequence. 

There is a circular spirit level on every good 
balance. If the bubble is not in the center, ad- 
just the scale by the screws underneath. 

Have a camel's hair brush two inches wide 
for dusting the wood-work around a balance. 

9. Other Apparatus. Water and 
Lead Bottles. The siphon bottle shown W 
in Fig. 17, is used for water and lead. 
The following points should be observed 
in making one of these bottles : Use a 
gallon bottle, ^ inch glass tubing, and 
rubber tubing to match ; have the rubber 
tube long enough so that when the bottle 
is on the shelf the lower end of the tube 
will be on a level with the eye ; have the 
air-tube bent down so as to exclude dust, 
make the nozzle about two inches long, 
and for rapid work the point should not 
be drawn too small ; and have a Mohr's 
pinch-cock immediately above the nozzle. Fig. 17. 








INSTRUMENTS FOR ANALYSIS AND THEIR USE. 



() Acetic Acid Bottles for lime cake analysis are made 
as above described but smaller. (See F. 13.) 

(c) Washing Bottle. This is shown in Fig. 18. It 
is a bottle of about 750 CC to 
800 CC capacity, and the neck 
is wrapped with twine to pro- 
tect the hand when hot water is 
used. Heavy glass tubing of 3-16 
iiich inside diameter may be used. 
The nozzle is drawn to a fine point, 
and a rubber tube is used to con- 
nect the siphon tube with the noz- 
zle so that it may be turned in any 
direction. The air-tube should be 
on a plane with the nozzle as the 
operator can better direct the 
stream. 




18 ' 



(aO Burettes for Fehling's Solution, normal acids, etc., 
may be placed in a burette stand like that shown in F. 20. 
The cheapest and very satisfactory 
burettes are Mohr's, for use with 
pinch-cocks shown in the illustration. 
A T-tube connection for filling 
burettes is shown in Fig. 19. The 
use of red lead or chalk, as described 
in 3 makes the graduations clearer. 
If Erdmann's floats are used with 
burettes, the graduation on the 
burette corresponding to the line on 
the float is the correct reading. If 
floats are not used, the reading is at 
the bottom of the meniscus (4). 




Fig. 19. 



42 INSTRUMENTS FOR ANALYSIS AND THEIR USE. 



(X) Thermometers for sugar analysis are 
preferably those with large enough bulbs so that 
they will only be about half immersed when 
placed in a fluid. (See Fig. 20.) They may 
be graduated from to 130 F., or 20 to about 
130, and should be of the common 
kind, that do not register too 
quickly, as the reading might 
change during the time the instru- 
ment is taken from the fluid to be 
read. 




Fig. 20. 



(/; Mohr's Pinchcocks (fig. 

21) are the most handy clamps for 
Fig. 21. water-bottles, burettes, etc. They 

are made in three sizes, the middle 
size being the one most often used in sugar 
work. 

(g) Kipp's Apparatus shown in Fig. 22 may 
be used for the generation of carbonic 
acid i n experimenting with lime and 

to neutralize alkaline solutions. Lime- 
stone is placed in the middle bulb 
and crude muriatic acid is poured in the 
safety tube at the top. The apparatus may 
also be used for the generation of hydrogen 
sulphide and other gases in chemical 
analysis. 

(/O Indicator Bottles may be either a 
dropping ftask or an ether bottle, both of 
which are described in 4. The former is 
preferable. Phenol is considered the most 
Fig. 22. suitable indicator for sugar work. 




OF THE 

m UNIVERSITY 
CHAPTER 
GENERAL METHODS OF ANAU. 

10. Introductory. Nearly all sugar analyses are 
figured for "purity." (See 19.) In exact analysis 
the "real purity " is obtained by weight, but in analysis 
where only approximate exactness is required, the "appar- 
ent purity " is determined by some method which combines 
the greatest accuracy with the quickest operation. Three 
of these methods are given in the following paragraphs. 
All are theoretically correct and it is a matter of opinion 
which is the most practical for general work.* The analy- 
sis by pipette is distinctly American, as is also the gravi- 
meter method, while the volumetric method is used in 
Europe. For solutions having a small percentage of sugar, 
such as pulp and waste waters, there can be no doubt but 
that the volumetric method is the best, as a large amount 
of the solution is necessary in order to secure accurate 
results. Natural water is used in sugar analysis, but it 
should be tested to see that it has no optical activity. 

The beginner is advised to read Chapter I. carefully lo 
learn the manipulation of all the apparatus used in analysis 
before studying this chapter. 

1 1. The Preparation of the Sample for analysis varies 
with the different substances, and is given for each one 
under its proper paragraph. 

12. Clarification. After the solution to be tested is 
measured, or is weighed out into the flask, the impurities 
must be precipitated to render it clear and colorless enough 
for polarization. This is done by the use of a sub-acetate 

* Nt)TE. Solutions having a brix of over 24 must be diluted, in order to make 
an apparent purity test by the methods here outlined. 



44 GENERAL METHODS OF ANALYSIS. 

of lead solution. The amount of the lead to use varies 
with the color and impurity of the solution to be tested 
but no more than is necessary should be used. In low- 
grade syrups 5 to 7 CC is often necessary, while a granulated 
sugar solution can be polarized without clarification. Add 
a few drops of the lead solution, and rotate the flask 
gently to mix the contents. Then let a drop flow down 
the neck and side of the flask ; if this drop is lost upon en- 
tering the solution, it indicates that the precipitation is not 
complete and that more lead solution must be added, but if 
it can be traced after entering the solution by its clear 
track down the side of the flask, it shows that the clarifi- 
cation is complete. 



The U. S. Department of Internal Revenue, in its regu- 
lations* relative to the bounty on domestic sugar, gives the 
following : " The use of sub-acetate of lead should, in all 
cases, be followed by the addition of * alumina cream ' 
(aluminic hydrate suspended in water), (t)in about double 
the volume of the sub-acetate solution used, for the purpose 
of completing the clarification, precipitating excess of lead, 
and facilitating filtration. In many cases of high grade 
sugars, especially beet sugars, the use of alumina alone 
may be sufficient for clarification without the previous 
addition of sub-acetate of lead." 

In ordinary work it is not generally considered neces- 
sary to use any other clarifying agent than lead acetate. 
The precipitate given by the lead solutions causes a very 



* U. S. Internal Revenue, Series 7 to 17, Revised. 

t See paragraph 128 for preparation of "Alumina Cream/ 



GENERAL METHODS OF ANALYSIS. 45 

slight error in polarization, on account of its volume. In 
the presence of this precipitate the fluid tested is not 
actually diluted up to 100 CC , but to 100 CC , minus the volume 
of the precipitate. In beets this error is about .17 per 
cent., and in diffusion juice, .27 per cent., while in green 
syrup it is estimated to be as high as .63 per cent.J This 
refers to tests made by the volumetric method. 

When invert sugar is present a serious error very often 
result by the formation of laevulosate of lead, which is a 
salt of low specific rotary power, and sometimes the left- 
hand rotation is almost, if not entirely, destroyed. (G L,. 
SPENCER.) The addition of enough acetic acid to give the 
solution an acid reaction will prevent this error. 

13. Filling the Flask. After the addition of sufficient 
lead solution, the flask is filled to the proper mark and is 
well shaken, the thumb being placed over the top of the 
flask In nearly all cases the solution should stand for 
from 5 to 10 minutes before being filtered. When it is 
known that there is only a small amount of sugar con- 
tained this is unnecessary, and in beet, cossette, and diffu- 
sion juice tests it allowed to stand the solution soon be- 
comes too dark to polarize. 



14. The Volumetric Method of analysis is used in 
Europe for determining all " apparent purities," but in the 
United States it is generally used only for solutions con- 
taining a very small amount of sugar such as pulp and waste 
waters. A flask graduated to 100 and 110 CC or to 50 and 



J See Tucker's Manual of Sugar Analysis, third edition, page 166. 



46 GENERAL METHODS OF ANALYSIS. 

55 CC is rinsed with the solution to be tested, and is then 
filled with it to the lower mark (50 or 100). Add 
sufficient lead acetate to precipitate the impurities 
and fill to the higher mark (55 or 110) with water. 
Filter and polarize a part of the filtrate in a 200 mm 
tube. The reading multiplied by *.286 was formerly taken 
to show the percentage of sugar in the solution, but this 
multiplication is now divided by the specific gravity as the 
increase in density lowers the specific rotatory power of the 
sugar. 

Table V. may be used for determining the per cent, 
sugar from the polariscope reading. For example, the 
brix of a solution is 16.5 and the temperature correction 
.3, making the corrected brix 16.8, and the polariscope 
reading is 33.6. By referring to the table we first find at 
the top of the page, the degree brix 17.0 as it is nearest to 
16.8. In the column under 17 we find the line of polar- 
iscope degree 33, as it is the whole degree of the polari- 
scope reading obtained, and the percentage of sugar given 
is 8.82. The tenths obtained is 6, and at the side of the 
table under "degree brix from 12.5 to 20.0," we find .6= 
.16. Adding .16 to 8.82 gives 8.98, the percentage of 
sugar in the solution tested. The per cent, sugar is divided 
by the brix and multiplied by 100 to give the apparent 
purity, 8.98 16 8 x 100 53 45, apparent purity. 



* A polariscope is made for 26.048 gr. of a solution made up to lOOcc to show 
the percentage of sugar it contains, and if a solution containing 26.048 percent, 
of sugar is read directly in the polariscope, the instrument will show 100 per 
cent. Hence each reading of 1 shows .26048 per cent, of sugar. When a solution 
is diluted 10 per cent, to allow for lead acetate (as above,) each reading of 1 will 
show 10 per cent, more than .26048 or .286 iti round numbers. 



GENERAL METHODS OF ANALYSIS. 47 

15. The Pipette Test is made as follows: Carefully 
take the brix and also the temperature of the solution to 
be tested. Fill the pipette to the graduation corresponding 
to the reading of the brix. (3.)t Diop the solution into 
a 100 CC flask and wash the pipette, as described in 3. Add 
enough lead acetate to the flask to precipitate all impurities 
and leave a clear fluid above. Then fill to the mark with 
water. After filtering, fill a 200 mm tube with a portion of 
the filtrate, and polarize. Divide the reading by two, as 
the pipette contained double normal weight. The per cent, 
of sugar thus obtained, divided by the brix, with the tem- 
perature correction and multiplied by 100, will give the 
apparent purity. 

16. The Gravimeter, invented by W. K. Gird, is a 
mechanical device by which the solution is measured off 
and placed in the flask by the operation of taking the dens- 
ity. It is based on the principle that a substance im- 
mersed in a fluid displaces its own weight of the fluid. 
The following explanation of the apparatus was prepared 
for " Beet Sugar Analysis " by the inventor. 

"In the illustration (Fig. 23) A represents the main 
tube, to hold the solution under treatment ; B, overflow 
pipe ; C, air vent, to prevent siphonage, constructed in 
funnel form, to facilitate cleaning; D, an index finger point- 
ing to the saccharometer, constructed so as to swing cut 
of the way when necessary, and to stand, for convenience 
of reading, say five graduations above the surface of the 
fluid ; E, saccharometer, weighing exactly .26048 gr . and F, 
point of discharge into the flask ; G, drip funnel; and H is 
cock for letting out the fluid from A. 

t Finding the per cent, sugar is done by weight, hence it is not influenced 
by temperature, and the uncorrected reading of the brix is drawn into the 
pipette. 



48 GBNKRAL METHODS OF ANALYSIS. 




Fig. 23. 



GENERAL METHODS OF ANALYSIS. 49 

The operator closes the aperature F with his finger 
and fills the main tube with the solution until it shows full 
at C. Skimming off the foam from the top of the main 
tube, he removes his finger and permits the excess to escape 
to the last drop, which must be removed. This will leave 
the tube B moistened with the fluid under analysis so that 
the condition will be left precisely the same as it will be 
after the delivery of the discharge hereafter explained. 
There can be no loss or no gain, either in quantity or 
quality. Next, place a 100 CC flask under the overflow F 
and insert the saccharometer in the usual manner, Jetting 
it go down slowly until it floats free. The fluid will come 
out at E ; bring up the mouth of the flask so as to catch 
the last drop. The fluid in the flask will now weigh 
exactly e. g. 26.048 gr , being the quantity displaced by the 
saccharometer having that weight. Now, bring the point 
D to the index on the saccharometer and note the reading, 
to which add (10), representing the height of the finger 
above the surface." 

The solution in the flask is cleared with lead acetate, 
filtered and the filtrate polarized in a 200 mra tube, the read- 
ing giving the direct per cent, sugar. In taking the brix, 
note the temperature on the thermometer I, and divide the 
per cent, sugar by the corrected brix and multiply by 100 
to find the apparent purity. 

The principal source of error in using the gravimeter is 
in having saccharometers incorrect in weight. Either 
normal or double normal weight instruments may be used, 
but it is difficult to make them exact. Another error to 
guard against is allowing the saccharometer to sink down 
too far. This is simply a matter of care, and can be easily 



GENERAL METHODS OF ANALYSIS. 



avoided. The gravimeter may be used for solutions having 
a medium and low brix, but is hardly adapted for thick 
juices and syrups. 

1 7. Analysis by Weight is usually made where great 
accuracy is required, and sometimes it is necessary when 
only a sm all 
amount is obtain- 
able of the sub- 
stance to be ana- 
lyzed. For thin 
solutions and beets 
take double normal 
weight, but for 
thick solutions and 
massecuites which 
are not so easily 
dissolved, use nor- 
mal weight. Half 
normal weight is Fi - 24 - 

used when only a small sample is to be had. The substance 
to be tested is carefully weighed in a tared scoop and then 
washed from the scoop into a 100 CC flask, or with beets, 
into the special beet flask. The scoops best suited for this 
method of analysis are of German silver, with long lips. 
(See F. 18.) After the substance is all in the flask, clear 
with lead acetate, fill to the mark, filter and read. In solu- 
tions where the purity by weight is to be determined, the 
specific gravity is found (2a) and the per cent, sugar is 
divided by the degree brix which equals the specific grav- 
ity obtained. This is multiplied by 100. In the analysis 
of massecuites, and sometimes of solutions, the dry sub- 
stance is found (2c), the division of the per cent, sugar by 




GENERAL METHODS OF ANALYSIS. 51 

the dry substance, and multiplying by 100, giving the real 
purity. Fig. 24 will show the kind and quality of balance 
suited for weighings in sugar analysis. 

Examples : 

Per cent. Sugar found by weight, 75.1. 
Per cent. Dry Substance, 85.3. 

75.1 -f- 85.3 x 100=88.0+, the real purity. 
Per cent. Sugar found by weight 50.0. 
Specific gravity, 1.4375 or 83.2 Brix. 

50 o -: 83.2 x 100 = 60.09 or 60.1, purity by weight. 

18. NonWNormal Analysis. It rarely, yet sometimes 
happens that some other weight than normal or half-normal 
weight must be taken for polarization. In this case the 
substance is carefully weighed out, dissolved and made up 
to 100 CC , with the addition of lead acetate, and polarized in 
a 200 mm tube, the per cent, of sugar being calculated 
according to the formula 

P x 26.048. 

w 
In which P represents the polarization and W the weight 

used. 

Example : 

A sample of 11 gr. of a massecuite is weighed out and polarized, 
the polarization being 36.8. According to the formula 

36.8 x 26.048 = 958.57 = 87.14, per cent, sugar in sample. 

11 11 

19. Quotient of Purity is the percentage of sugar con- 
tained in the total solids. It is always spoken of simply as 
"purity." The only exact method for determining the 
quotient of purity is described in 17, and is called the 
" real purity." The "purity by weight" described in the 
same paragraph is considered in some factories to be suffi- 
ciently exact for syrup analysis. The " apparent purity" 
(14, 15 and 16,) is used for nearly all analyses in the 



52 GENERAL METHODS OF ANALYSIS. 

chemical control of the daily run of factories. It is not 
exact, as the Brix saccharometer is used for determining 
the total solids, and this instrument is based on a scale 
which assumes all the solids to be pure sugar. The 
presence of other solids in an impure solution makes the 
brix reading too high and the purity consequently too 
low. It is not affected alike b}^ all impurities*, hence its 
inaccuracy varies, but the purity found is usually fioin 2 to 
4 lower than the real purity. After obtaining the per 
cent, sugar and the degree Brix, the apparent purity can be 
determined by the use of Table VI. 

20. The Value Coefficient is used by some European 
factories in the purchase ot beets, the price paid being ac- 
cording to the coefficient. It is also used to some extent in 
determining the value of juices in factory work. The 

formula is 

Sucrose x purity 

ITJTT = value coefficient. 

21. The Saline Quotient is considered by French 
chemists to show how near a substance is exhausted of 
crystallizable sugar. The supeiintendents of French fac- 
tories pay more attention to it than to purity ; in fact, they 
practically neglect figuring on purity bases (E. E. BRYS- 
SELBOUT). Some chemists consider it of especial value to 
new factories in the study of beets and j uices. The formula is : 

Per cent Sucrose -j per cent. Ash = Saline Quotient. 
For the analysis of ash see 34b. Determine the 
sugar by weight. 

22. The Rendement is a formula tor determining the 
amount of refined sugar that can be made from a substance 
or solution. It is : 

Per cent. Sucrose (per cent ash x 5) = per cent, refined sugar. 
* See Tucker's Manual of Su^ ar Analysis, 3rd edition, page 112. 



Apparatus in M. 

1. Apparatus for testing CO 2 in gas. 

2. Kiehle machine for beets and cossettes. 

3. Meat chopper for cossettes. 

4. Power grinder for beets. 

5. Hand grinder for beets. 

6. Beet block and knife. 

7. Beet box for beet samples. 

8. Press for obtaining juice from'beets or|cossettes. 

9. Press for pulp. 
10. Hand grinder for pulp. 
11. The same in parts. 



CHAPTER III. 




INDIVIDUAL SUGAR ANALYSES. 

23. (a) Beets. A bushel basket full of beets is 
taken as a sample from each wagon, or samples from two or 
three wagon loads (from the same 
farmer) may be tared and analyzed as 
one sample. The sample is dumped on 
-S the floor in one pile and mixed. From 
this pile the " tarer " takes a sample 
weighing 50 pounds, using a shovel to 
take the beets from the floor. The beets 
are cleaned thoroughly in a washing 
machine and are then tared by cutting 
off the tops squarely at the point where 
the first leaves have grown (see Fig. 25.) 
All hairs are scraped off, and all roots 
that are ^ of an inch, or les^, in diameter, are removed. 
The sample is then reweighed 
and the difference between its 
weight and 50 pounds, multi- 
plied by 2, gives the per cent, 
of tare. Twenty average beets 
are then taken from the sample 
to test in the laboratory. They 
are weighed (preferably with 
metric weights) and the average weight is recorded. The 
common platform scales with scoop are used in weighing. 
Each beet is then cut perpendicularly as equally as possi- 
ble, into four parts, and one of the quarter sections of each 
beet is taken to make up the sample for analyzing. The 




Fig. 26. 



56 INDIVIDUAL SUGAR ANALYSES. 

beet block and knife used for this purpose are shown in m6. 
There are a number of machines constructed for cutting 
out certain parts of the beets which are considered to give 
the best average sample, but the above method is very 
practical, being both rapid and accurate. 

(b) The sample is grated up similarly to horse radish and 
the juice from the pulp thus obtained is squeezed through a 
cloth by pressure. The grater and press generally used are 
shown in m4 and m8. The cylinder of the grater should 
make about 500 revolutions a minute. After being grated 
up the sample is in a box (m4) and is dumped upon a 
clean, dry cloth. The edges of the cloth are then folded 
together, placed in the press and pressure applied. The 
juice flowing out should be received in a bucket which is 
clean and dry inside. All the juice possible should be 
squeezed out. From the bucket a portion of the juice is 
poured into a cylinder very carefully, so as to make as little 
foam as possible, and is allowed to stand as long as may be 
necessary (from 10 to 20 minutes), to let all the bubbles of 
air come to the top. Skim off the foam with a spoon and 
analyze by either the volumetric method or pipette test. 
The use of too little or too much lead will give a dark solu- 
tion after filtering. The continuous polarization tube 
described in 7d is of especial value in beet work when a 
large number of samples are to be tested, and is as accurate 
as the ordinary tube when used properly. The per cent, 
sugar is figured into apparent purity. On account of the 
fibre in the beet the per cent, of sugar is less than is found 
by analysis to be in the juice. The sugar in beets is usually 
considered to be 95 per cent, of the sugar in juice, but in 
dry years it is often taken as 94 per cent. For determining 
the amount of fibre in beets see (f) of this paragraph. The 
analysis of the beet may be recorded in this way : 



INDIVIDUAL SUGAR ANALYSES. 57 

Average weight 348 gr. 

Brix 19.1. 

Per cent. Sugar in juice 15.4. 

Per cent. Sugar in beet (95 percent) 14.6. 
Purity 80.6. 

(c) Water Digest. A flask is especially made for this 
test, being graduated to 201. 4 CC and 221. 4 CC . It is the same 
as a 200 CC plus 20 per cent, flask with 1.4 CC allowed for the 
fibre in the beet. Grind the beets to be tested as fine as 
possible. Weigh out double normal weight and wash into 
flask using an amount of water which will bring the con- 
tents of the flask up to a volume of about 180 CC . Add 5 CC 
of lead acetate and heat in a water bath at 75C. A stick 
about eight inches long and slightly thicker than a lead 
pencil may be placed in the flask to use in pushing down 
any foam that may rise. The length of time required for 
heating varies according to the way the beets are ground. 
MR. E. TURCK and the author in a series of experiments 
found that the beets ground with a horse radish grater had 
to be heated for 45 minutes to give accurate results, while 
beets crushed to an exceedingly fine pulp in a specially 
made machine (the Kiehle) could be thoroughly diffused 
in 15 minutes. After heating sufficiently, cool to 17>^ C 
and make up to the 201.4 CC mark. Very often in this test 
it will be found necessary to fill to Hie upper mark, in 
which case deduct 10 per cent, of the reading. When the 
lower mark is used, the reading in a 200 mm tube shows 
the per cent, of sugar in the beet. 

This test may be made as above in a 100 CC flask, but the 
foam which usually forms make the operation more diffi- 
cult than with the larger flask. It is also slightly less 
accurate as no provision is made for the^fifetfei^the beet. 



58 INDIVIDUAL SUGAR ANALYSES. 

(d) The Alcohol Extraction is considered by many chem- 
ists to be the only exact method for determining the per- 
centage of sugar in beets. The apparatus for this analysis 
is shown in Fig. 27. A wide-mouthed 200 CC flask contain- 
ing 150 CC of ^-per cent, alcohol is placed in a water bath, 
which is well covered. The top of the flask is connected 
by a rubber stopper with an extraction apparatus, prefer- 
ably the Sickel-Soxhlet which is shown in the illustration. 
Into the cylinder A of the apparatus is placed 52.096 gr of 
the sample which is prepared in the same way as the sam- 
ple for the water digestion. The cylinder should be of 
such size and so made that the substance to be tested does 
not come higher than the upper turn of the siphon D- 
The sample may be washed into the cylinder with alcohol, 
and more alcohol added until the fluid comes up in D to the 
upper turn. A L,iebig condensor is now attached to the 
upper part of the extraction apparatus by a rubber stopper 
and some suitable arrangement made to keep a flow of cold 
water through the condensor. This can be done by siphon- 
age, as shown in the illustration. Heat is now applied and 
the alcohol distilled. The gas passes up through the tube 
C to the condensor, where it is condensed, and falls into the 
tube A, going back to the flask through the siphon D. 
This distillation and redistillation is kept up until the fluid 
coming back through the siphon is colorless. The length 
of the operation varies, but is usually about two hours, and 
the fluid in the apparatus goes back about four times. 
When finished, the flask is separated from the apparatus 
and cooled. About 4 CC of lead acetate are then added and 
the contents made up to the mark with alcohol. Shake well, 
filter with precautions against evaporation, and polarize, 
the reading being the per cent, sugar in beet. 




Fig. 27. 



6o 



INDIVIDUAL SUGAR ANALYSES. 



(e) Alcohol Digest. This is made the same as the 
water 'digestion, alcohol being used instead of water. Care 

must be taken to 
prevent evapo- 
ration of the al- 
cohol. It may 
be avoided by 
slanting the 
ftask in the 
water bath and 
connecting to 
the top of the 
flask by a rub- 
ber stopper, a 
straight glass 
tube l cm in di- 
ameter and 
about 65 cm long, 
the tube acting 
as a condenser 
(Fig. 28.) 

(/) The Fi- 
bre in Beet is 
usually deter- 
mined indirectly 
by a compari- 
son of the tests 
of sugar in 
beet b y the 
alcohol extrac- 
tion, and of sugar in juice by the volumetric or pip- 
ette method. A large sample is ground up and well 
mixed and is then divided, a smaller portion being used 




Fig. 28. 



INDIVIDUAL, SUGAR ANALYSES. 6 1 

for the alcohol digest and the larger portion for the juice 
test, the juice being pressed out and tested as in B, dividing 
the per cent, sugar found to be in the beet by the per cent, 
sugar in the juice, the ratio of the sugar in beet to sugar in 
juice is found. This percentage subtracted from 100 will 
give the percentage of fibre. 

Example : 

Per cent, sugar by alcohol digest = 15.2. 
Per cent, sugar found in juice = 16.1. 
15.2 '- 16.1 = 94.4 per cent. 
100 94.4 = 5.6, the per cent, of fibre. 

A direct determination of the fibre may be made by 
taking the residue remaining in the cylinder A (Fig. 20,) 
after the alcohol extraction*, and drying first at 90C and 
finally at 100C to constant weight. The weight of the 
residue divided by 52.096 and multiplied by 100 will give 
the per cent, of fiber. This is Scheibler's method. 

Or) Beets in the Field. When a beet is young the 
weight of the leaves is proportionately much greater than 
that of the root, but as the plant grows the difference be- 
comes gradually less until at maturity the condition is re- 
versed and the root weighs much more than the leaves. 
The knowledge of the relation between the roots and the 
leaves is of value to the agriculturist in many ways, one in- 
dication being that an increase in the proportion of roots 
is an increase in the contents of sugar. Hence, in testing 
beets before maturity, a record should always be made of 
the weight of the roots and of the tops, the relation of the 
roots to the total weight being calculated by dividing the 




* To be sure that all soluble matter is extracted, the residue should be washed 
with ether. 






62 INDIVIDUAL SUGAR ANALYSES. 

former by the latter. The leaves are cut off squarely at the 
point where the first leaves have grown, as shown in Fig 
25. 

Example : 

Four beets are tested, the leaves of which weigh 2324s r and the 
roots 18288 r . 

2324gr 4 = 581gr, average weight of leaves. 
1828g f -, 4 = 457gr, average weight of roots. 

457 457 

= .44 or 44 per cent., proportion of roots to 

(581 + 457) 1038 

total weight. In recording the analysis, the average weight of the 
leaves and the roots and the proportion of roots to total weight are 
written first, the results of analysis (as in .5) following. 

24. Cossettes. The diffuser takes a small sample 
(handful) of cossettes from each cell as the battery is being 
filled, placing it in a large can with a closely fitting top. 
This can when full contains the laboratory sample.* After 
mixing thoroughly, the sample, or a portion of it, is chopped 
to a fine pulp with a sausage-meat cutter (m3) or some 
similar machine. After being reduced to fine particles 
the sample is again thoroughly mixed and a small portion 
is taken for the determination of the per cent, sugar in the 
cossettes. This is done either by the water digest (23c) or 
the alcohol extraction (23d). The juice is squeezed out of 
the remaining portion and is analyzed the same as beet 
juice (23b). In laboratories possessing the Kiehle ma- 
chine (m2,) the portion for direct sugar in cossettes can 
be ground up separately in this machine. In many fac- 
tories this latter analysis is the only one made of cossettes. 

25. Wet Pulp. The sample is taken as the pulp 
comes from the diffusion battery. It should be well-mixed, 

* In hot countries the can of samples should be emptied in at least two hours 
after the first sample is put in, on account of the danger of fermentation. 



INDIVIDUAL SUGAR ANALYSES. 



not all being taken from the same place, and should be 
picked up with the hand so that a surplus of water is 
avoided . Large chips of beets are sometimes mixed with 
the pulp, and care should be taken that none of these are 
in the sample. The sample is mixed thoroughly and is 
ground up in a hand sausage machine (m1O.) after 
which the liquid is pressed out 
through a cloth. The usual press is 
shown in m9 and in Fig. 29. Both 
the grinder and the press should beat 
some distance from the machine used 
in preparing beet and cossette sam- 
ples. The analysis of pulp is very 
important, and the slightest addition 
of sugar from a foreign source would 
cause an error. The liquid pressed 
out as above is analyzed by the volu- 
metric method, a 100-1 10 CC flask being 
used. Table IV. is prepared especially for pulp analysis 
and it should be tacked up in a convenient place in the 
laboratory. 

26. Pressed Pulp. Take a somewhat larger sample 
than is used in the wet pulp analysis described in the 
above paragraph and proceed in the same way. 

27. Waste Water from the diffusion battery can 
usually be tested by filtering a small quantity into a 
beaker and reading in the polariscope. When read 
directly in this way multiply the reading by .26 (see 14.) 
Sometimes the addition of a small pinch of common salt 
will make a cleaier filtrate. If the water is too dark to be 
read without clearing with lead acetate, make the analysis 
by the volumetric method and use Table IV. for determin- 




Fig. 29. 






64 INDIVIDUAL, SUGAR ANALYSES. 

ing the per cent, sugar. The disposal of waste water 
varies so greatly in different factories that no directions can 
be given for taking the sample. 

28. Diffusion Juice* From each measuring tank full 
of juice 50 CC are taken and placed in a bucket to make up 
the sample for analysis. In warm countries there is danger 
of fermentation if the sample stands too long. The addi- 
tion of definite volumes of lead acetate, or common salt, or 
carbolic acid, are sometimes recommended to prevent this 
fermentation. None of these are satisfactory, as no accu- 
rate correction can be made, either for the influence of the 
foreign matter on the brix or on the polariscope reading. 
The best method is to empty the sample and make the 
analysis before it has had time to ferment. The juice will 
keep longer if the bucket is uncovered. Analyze by 
either the pipette or volumetric method and make purity. 
The same precaution as in beet analysis must be observed 
in regard to the use of too little or too much lead. 

29. Lime Cakes* There are two methods employed 
for determining the per cent, of sugar remaining in lime 

cakes, the water 
test and the acetic 
acid test. Samples 
are usually taken 
from several filter 
presses and mixed 
together as one 
sample. When the 
cake is hard and 

30. firm a sample taken 

from any part of the press is an average of the whole press. 
Theoretically in center-feed presses there is more sugar 




INDIVIDUAL SUGAR ANALYSES. 65 

contained in the outer edges of the cake than nearer the 
center, and the opposite is theoretically true in side-feed 
presses. When a sample is taken it should be kept covered 
until analyzed to prevent evaporation of the water. Fig. 30 
is the most convenient scale for weighing. 



(a) Water Test. Weigh out 25^ r * of the cake taking 
a small portion from each sample. Put in a shallow porce- 
lain mortar (F 12 or Fig. 31,) 

add about 15 CC of hot water and 

mix thoroughly. Transfer to a 

100 CC flask, washing the mortar 

with about 75 CC of water. Add 

2 or 3 CC of lead acetate and heat 

slowly to about 95C. Cool, 

make up to 100 CC , filter and Fi S 81 - 

polarize. The reading is the 

percent, sugar contained. 

(b) Acid Test. Weigh out 25* r as above. Transfer 
to a porcelain mortar and add enough water to make a thick 
paste, using a pestle to thoroughly dissolve the lumps. Neu- 
tralize with acetic acid, using phenol as an indicator. Add 
the acid carefully to prevent foaming over. Pour into a 




If normal weight were made up to lOOcc the dilution would be insufficient 
on account of the insoluble matter in the lime-cakes. The amount of the insol- 
uble matter varies with the condition of the cake, but for normal weight of good 
hard cake is taken as 4cc. Hence the dilution is up to only 96cc instead of lOOcc. 
By taking 25gr (96 per cent, of normal weight) an allowance is made for the in- 
soluble matter and precipitate. It could also be accomplished by making 
normal weight up to 104. 2cc. 



66 INDIVIDUAL SUGAR ANALYSES. 

100 CC flask, add a few cc of lead acetate and make up to the 
mark with water. Then filter and read, the reading being 
the per cent, sugar contained. 

30. Thin Juices of all kinds may be tested by either 
the volumetric or the pipette method. In factories using 
the Steffens' process there is a hydrate juice which contains 
a great deal of lime. It should be neutralized with car- 
bonic acid gas and filtered before being analyzed. If gas 
used in the factory is employed for neutralizing, it should 
pass through some condensing chamber which will free it 
from water. The juice may be neutralized in a glass 
cylinder, phenol being used as an indicator. In analyzing 
thin juices, after the addition of lead acetate, make up to 
the mark, shake well and let stand about five minutes. 

31. Sweet Waters are tested in the same way as thin 
juices, and when distinctly alkaline are neutralized by car- 
bonic acid gas and filtered before analyzing, as in 3O. The 
volumetric method is generally employed in analysis of 
sweet waters on account of their low sugar content, a 
100-1 10 CC flask being used. 

32. Thick Juice is usually tested for its apparent pur- 
ity and purity by weight. For the apparent purity take a 
large tumbler half full of the juice and dilute by the addi- 
tion of water. When in thorough solution transfer to a 
glass cylinder and make the pipette test, or analyze by vol- 
ume. For the purity by weight use normal weight and 
transfer to a 100 CC flask. It is best to mix the juice thor- 
oughly with water in the scoop, as it can be poured more 
easily into the flask and can be cleared more readily with 
lead acetate. After precipitating the impurities, fill to the 
mark, shake well, and let stand about 10 minutes. Divide 



INDIVIDUAL SUGAR ANALYSES. 67 

the polariscope reading by the brix obtained by pycnometer 
method to find the purity by weight. 

33. Syrups. Samples may be taken from a tank or 
from the trough leading away from the centrifugal 
machines, but should never be taken directly from the 
spout of a machine, except in very special cases. In case 
the latter is necessary care should be taken to get a fair 
sample. There are often drops of almost pure sugar on the 
end of the spout ; avoid them. Mix every sample thor- 
oughly with the hand before it is analyzed. No instru- 
ment is equal to the fingers in mixing the tiny grains of 
sugar with the rest of the sample. 

Syrups are tested for apparent purity or for purity by 
weight and real purity. For apparent purity use a large 
tumbler ; fill about one-third full with the syrup and dilute 
with water. Dissolve the syrup as much as possible by 
stirring. I,et stand for a minute, pour off the fluid at the 
top into a glass cylinder and add more water to the tumb- 
ler. Completely dissolve the remainder of the syrup and 
transfer to the cylinder, washing the tumbler perfectly clean 
and adding the washings to the cylinder. In this opera- 
tion care should be taken to not spill any of the solution 
from the time the syrup is put in the tumbler until the solu- 
tion has been well shaken in the cylinder. The solution should 
brix from about 18 to 20. Apparent purity may be made 
volumetrically or by pipette. For purity by weight all the 
air must be driven from the sample to be analyzed. This 
is effected most easily by the apparatus shown in F 26. A 
glass funnel (sugar size) with a stick fitting water-tight in 
the stem is placed in a common tin can half filled with water. 
The stem of the funnel should be about half an inch above 
the top of the water. Fill the funnel nearly full of the 



68 INDIVIDUAL SUGAR ANALYSES. 

syrup to be analyzed and place the can over a burner or 
stove, letting the water heat without boiling until all the air 
in the syrup has been driven to the top. A funnel with a 
ground glass stop cock may also be used. Cool to normal 
temperature. The funnel can now be placed in the ring of 
an iron lamp-stand and the syrup will flow from the stem 
by raising the stick. Discard the first 5 CC as it may con- 
tain a small amount of water from the bottom of the stick 
and the stem of the funnel. Let that which follows flow 
into a pycnometer, and when a sufficient amount has been 
obtained stop the flow by shutting down the stick. De- 
termine the brix by comparison with the sp. g. obtained by 
the pycnometer. After the specific gravity has been taken 
the syrup in the pycnometer can be used for weighing to 
obtain the per cent, sugar. Weigh out normal weight, 
dilute with water and make a solution in the scoop ; trans- 
fer to a 100 CC flask, washing out the scoop thoroughly. 
After clearing with lead acetate, fill to the mark, and 
let stand for about ten minutes. For the real purity de- 
termine the dry substance, as in 2c, and make the sugar by 
weight as above dividing the per cent, sugar by the per 
cent, dry substance. 

34. (a) Massecuites and Sugars are tested for appar- 
ent purity and real purity. In either case take the sample 
in a small pan and mix thoroughly with the hand, being 
careful to crush all the lumps. The " tryer" is used when 
possible in taking samples. This instrument resembles the 
half of an inch steel pipe cut longitudinally and sharpened 
at the end. Insert the " tryer " in the massecuite or sugar 
to be sampled, rotate it completely, and withdraw. In cold 
weather sample cans brought in should be allowed to attain 
the temperature of the room (WIECHMANN). For the 



INDIVIDUAL SUGAR ANALYSES. 69 

apparent purity a solution must be made in the same way 
as syrups. Dissolve every grain of sugar in the tumbler 
before transferring to the cylinder. Massecuite dissolves 
very much more readily in hot than in cold water and in 
laboratories where ice is obtainable the quickest method is 
to dissolve the sample in boiling water and then cool to 
normal temperature with ice. This is particularly valuable 
in testing samples taken from the vacuum pan to see if the 
strike is ready to be dropped. Make the apparent purity 
by volumetric method or pipette test. For the real purity 
make the dry substance (2c) and determine the sugar by 
weight. Use normal weight and dissolve as much as possi- 
ble in the scoop with hot water. Pour the fluid, but no 
grains of sugar, into a 100 CC flask and add more warm 
water to the scoop. Dissolve the remaining grains and 
wash into the flask. A glass rod flattened out at one end 
should be used in effecting this solution. Cool to normal 
temperature, clear with lead acetate and make up to the 
mark. Shake well and let stand several minutes (about 6 
or 8.) Filter and read, dividing the reading by the per 
cent, of dry substance to find the real purity. 

() The Full Analysis of massecuites usually comprises 
the folowing : 

Apparent purity. 

Real purity. 

Per cent, sugar. 

Per cent, water. 

Percent, mineral matter (ash.) 

Per cent, organic matter. 

The first three are found according to the above para- 
graph, and the water is 100 the dry substance. To find 
the ash weigh about 3 gr in a tared platinum dish and add 
about 20 drops of sulphuric acid. This is done to make 



70 INDIVIDUAL SUGAR ANALYSES. 

the massecuite yield sulphate salts instead of carbon salts 
as the latter burn away and the former do not. Burn the 
massecuite until it gives a white ash. Heat gradually at 
first to prevent the substance from rising suddenly and 
going over the sides, but as soon as the water has been 
driven off, burn over an exceedingly hot flame. After 
burning, cool in a dessicator and weigh. The weight of 
the ash divided by the weight of the massecuite used will 
give the per cent, of the ash. The addition of the sulphuric 
acid causes an error, making the ash weigh more than it 
would if the natural carbon salts were present. This error 
is generally accepted to be 10 per cent, and is so figured. 

Example : 

Weight of dish and massecuite 18.615 gr. 

Weight of dish 15.597 gr. 

Weight of massecuite used 3.018 gr. 

Weight of ash and dish 15.763 gr. 

Weight of dish 15.597 gr. 

Weight of ash 166 gr. 

Ten per cent, for sulphuric acid error 017 gr. 

Correct weight of ash 149 gr. 

.149 r- 3.018 = .049 = 4.9 per cent, of ash. 

The organic matter of a massecuite is 100 less the sum 
of the per cent, sugar, the per cent, water and the per cent, 
ash. 

Example : 

Total in massecuite 100.00 per cent. 

Sugar 80.6 per cent. 

Water 9.45 

Ash.. . 4.9 " 94.95 



Organic matter , 5.05 



INDIVIDUAL SUGAR ANALYSES. 71 

The following are two results obtained from average 
pans in two American factories : 

Apparent purity . . 85.3 82.9 

Real purity 88.9 85.4 

Per cent, sugar 80.5 78.2 

Per cent, water 9.05 8 5 

Per cent, ash 4.5 6.6 

Per cent, organic matter 5.95 6.7 



CHAPTER IV. 
LIME, ALKALINITIE8 AND SATURATION GAS. 

35. (a) Lime is analyzed for its percentage of CaO. 
Weigh out one gr. of a finely powdered average sample, 
transfer to a porcelain dish and neutralize with a normal 
acid. Either Nitric, Sulphuric or Hydrochloric acid may 
be used in a normal solution, but the latter has been gener- 
ally adopted by the American beet sugar factories. Take 
the acid from a burette graduated to 1-10 of a cubic centi- 
meter. Use a few drops of phenol as an indicator and add 
the acid slowly until the red color is gone. Note the read- 
ing of the burette before the test is begun and after the 
powder has been completely neutralized. The difference 
between the two readings gives the number of cc of acid 
necessary to effect neutralization. Multiply this number 
by .028* to find the per cent, of CaO in the lime. Table 
VII. saves the operation of multiplication, 

Example : 

Reading of burette before neutralizing 35.6 

Reading of burette at beginning 8.9 

Number of cc of acid used 26.7 

26 7 x .028 = .7476 = 74.76, the per cent. CaO in the lime. 

*One cc of a normal acid neutralizes .028?r of CaO. To illustrate, the action of 
normal HC1 will be described : In neutralizing the lime the chlorine in the acid 
combines with the calcium in the lime to make calcium chloride, and the hydro- 
gen in the acid combines with the oxygen in the lime to make water. Two parts 
of acid must be used. The formula is : 

CaO -r- 2HC1 = CaCl 2 4- H 2 O. 

The atomic weight of CaO is 55.87 CCa = 39 91 and O = 15.96) and the atomic 
weight of 2HC1 is 72.74 (2H = 2 and 2C1 = 70.74.) Therefore, it takes 72.74 parts 
by weight of HCl to combine with 55.87 parts of CaO. In normal acid there are 
36.37 parts of HCl in 1,000, or .03(537 gr in Ice. As HCl combines with CaO in the 
proportion of 72.74 to 55 87 to find how much CaO Ice of normal acid will neutral- 
ize, we have this equation. 

72.74 : 55.87 :: .3637 gr : x. 

xis .028gr. 

Therefore, as in the example, if it takes 26.7cc of acid to combine with the 
CaO in Igr of lime, multiplying by .028 gives the weight of CaO which has com- 
bined with the acid. In this case it is .7476gr, which is 74.76 per cent of the Igr 
of lime used. The action of normal sulphuric acid and normal nitric acid may 
be figured out in a similar manner. 



LIME, ALKAUNITIES AND SATURATION GAS. 73 

H. RIECKES has proposed a test for finding the "availa- 
ble lime " or lime that will go into solution with sugar, the 
test being particularly applicable to the Steffens' process. 
It is made by weighing out a certain amount and dissolving 
with water and sugar solution. The amount used is pref- 
erably l gr of lime for every 100^ of water and sugar solu- 
tion. Weigh, for example, 3 gr of a finely powdered 
average sample, and dissolve as much as possible in the 
scoop, adding sugar solution to assist the operation. No 
prescribed amount of sugar solution is necessary but about 
80 or 90 CC of a solution of 50 brix should be used in a 300 CC 
test. As fast as any appreciable amount is dissolved, pour 
into a 300 CC flask, and repeat this until all the lime possible 
has been dissolved ; then wash the remaining particles into 
the flask. Fill to the mark with water and shake well. 
Filter 100 CC and neutralize with normal acid, using phenol 
as an indicator. Multiply the number of cc of acid used by 
.028, as in the above paragraph, to find the percentage of 
"available lime." The results from this test have not 
proved to be reliable thus far, often being from 5 to 10 per 
cent, less than determinations of the same samples by direct 
titration of the powder. However, the test has a certain 
value in Steffens' work. It should always be made at as 
low a temperature as possible, and always at the same tem- 
perature with sufficient sugar solution. For testing CaO 
in saccharate the results are good. 

(&} Milk of Lime is tested only for CaO and density. 
The CaO is found by neutralizing l gr with normal acid as in 
(a). Shake well and find the density with a Brix or a 
Beaume hydrometer. 

(f) The Slacking Tests of lime are g^iven in If 39. 



74 



LIME, AIKAUNITIES AND SATURATION GAS. 



71 



36. Alkalinities. In beet sugar making the alkalinity 
of juices is nearly always figured as lime, although it is 
partly ammonia, and sodium and potassium compounds. It 
is usual in testing alkalinities to have a special acid of 
which l cc will neutralize .0020^ of lime, so that if 20 CC of a 
juice is used every cc of acid necessary to neutralize it ,/^ 
will show 1-100 of 1 per cent, alkalinity. The special acid 
is made by adding 570 CC of a normal acid to 7430 CC of water. 
To explain, take the special Hydrochloric acid as an ex- 
ample. Every cc of this acid contains .00259* r of HC1, and 
as it combines with lime in the propor- 
tion of 72.74 to 55.87 each cc will neu- 
tralize .0020* r of lime (see 35a ). 
Therefore, when 20 cc of a juice is taken 
every cc of acid combines with .0001 gr of 
lime in each cc of juice, and the number 
of cc of acid used show, the number of 
hundredths of 1 per cent, lime in the sam- 
ple. If, for example, 20 CC of a juice is neu- 
tralized by 5 CC of acid, it has an alkalinity 
of 5-100 of 1 per cent. This is usually 
written .05 and is called an alkalinity of 
5. In analyzing measure off 20 CC of the 
sample (a tin cup F 36 holding 20 CC 
may be used for this,} and transfer to a 
porcelain dish. Use phenol as an indi- 
cator and neutralize by the addition of 
the special acid described above. A 
burette graduated to 1-10 of a cc should 
be used for measuring the acid. There 
are several forms of apparatus for filling the burettes used 
in alkalinity determinations, one of which is shown in F 
35 and another in Fjg. 32. The burette is usually of 10 CC 




Fig. 32. 



I.IME, ALKAL1NITIES 




75 



fT 
"S 




capacity, and the apparatus has a siphon arrangement by 
which the burette is always filled exactly to the zero mark. 
A form of apparatus which can be easily 
made in any laboratory and which is 
preferred by many chemists is shown in 
Fig. 33. 

The juices sampled for alkalinities 
are usually taken from a filter press after 
the first carbonation, a press after the 
second carbonation, a Daneck or me- 
chanical filter after the sulphuring pro- 
cess, the last effect in the evaporation, 
and a filter after treatment of thick juice. 
A 4-oz. bottle with a wooden handle 
attached (F 14) is convenient for taking 
the samples. They are transferred to 
test-tubes in a -rack, as shown in F 5. 
Each test-tube should be first rinsed 
with the juice sampled. The sample 
from a filter press should be taken when 
the press is running at full force, and 
not when it is either first opened or 
nearly filled. 




- 33 ' 



37. CO 2 in Saturation Gas. Carbonic acid is readily 
absorbed by water containing either caustic soda or caustic 
potassium, and it is usual in laboratories to have an appa- 
ratus constructed on this principle for testing the per cent. 
of CO 2 in saturation gas. A form of this apparatus is 
shown in ml. There are others of different construction, 
but so made that 100 CC of water are displaced by the gas to 
be tested, the gas then being forced thiough a reservoir 
filled with a solution of caustic soda. The gas which 



76 LIME, AI^KALINITIES AND SATURATION GAS. 

passes through meets a tube bearing a scale divided in cubic 
centimeters and containing 100 CC of water. As much of 
this water is displaced as there are cc of gas 
passing through the reservoir. The amount of 
water remaining in the tube is of the same volume 
as the gas which was combined with the caustic 
soda, hence the number of cc remaining shows 
the percentage of CO 2 in the gas. 

As a control for the apparatus, tests should be 
made at least once every day with a burette, as 
follows : Use a graduated 100 CC burette with a 
ground glass stop-cock (Fig. 34). Attach it to a rub- 
ber tube connected with the gas pipe, leaving the 
open end in cold water. Let the gas pass 
through the burette for two or three minutes, then 
close the stop-cock and disconnect the rubber 
tube. Raise the burette until the zero mark is 
even with the top of the water and open the 
stop-cock just long enough to allow the water to 
come up to the mark. There are now exactly 
100 CC of gas in the burette. Insert a piece of 
caustic soda (stick) about half an inch long, in 
the open end, keeping it under water. Then close 
this end with the thumb or index finger and turn 
the burette upside down several times, letting the 
soda go from one end to the other. Replace the 
end of the burette in water and by taking away 
the finger, water will rise in the burette to take the 
place of CO 2 that has been absorbed by the caustic 
soda. Repeat the above operation until the water 
ceases to rise in the burette. The number of cc of 
water now in the burette will show the percentage 
of carbonic acid absorbed, which is the percentage Fig. 34. 




LIME, ALKAUNITIES AND SATURATION GAS. 77 

of CO 2 in the gas tested. In determining the amount of 
water in the burette it is best to place the instrument 
deeply enough in water so that the surface of the water 
in the vessel used is even with the water in the burette. 
This prevents the weight of water in the burette from 
affecting its reading. 



CHAPTER V. 
8TEFFEN& PROCESS ANALYSES. 

38. (a) Saccharate of Lime is of two kinds, hot and 
cold, and each is tested for sugar, purity and CaO. To de- 
termine the sugar, weigh out I3.024 gr . Neutralize in the 
scoop with acetic acid, using phenol as an indicator. Dis- 
solve the saccharate thoroughly and pour the contents of 
the scoop into a 100 CC flask. Cool to normal temperature, 
add sufficient lead acetate, and make up to the mark with 
water. Filter and read in the polariscope, multiplying the 
reading by two to find the per cent, sugar. 

(&) To Find the Purity of a saccharate, mix the sample 
with water. Use about 1 kilo, of saccharate and dilute to 
about 15 or 20 brix. Neutralize with carbonic acid 
gas and filter. Evaporate the filtrate to 30 or 40 brix and 
filter again. Find the brix by pycnometer and determine 
the sugar by weight, using 26.048 gr . Divide the sugar by 
the brix for the purity. If the purity of a solution that 
has a high alkalinity is made without neutralizing, multiply 
the alkalinity by 3 and subtract from the brix. However, 
nearly every chemist prefers to have the solution neutral. 

(c) CaO in Saccharate is found according to the Rieckes' 
method for "available CaO " in lime (35a). For the cold 
saccharate use 3 gr in 300 CC of water and sugar solution, but 
as the hot saccharate dissolves much more readily 4 or 5 2r 
of it may be used in 300 CC . In the latter case if 5 gr are 
used the result must be divided by 1.666, for there are that 
many gr of saccharale in the 100 CC used for the test. 

39. Lime Powder is tested for CaO and grit, and occa- 
sionally a slacking test is made. The CaO is found 



STEFFENS' PROCESS ANALYSES. 79 

according to 35a- The grit is the lime that will not 
pass through the sieves used in the process. These sieves 
are usually of 120 mesh, but whatever size is used must be 
taken for the laboratory test. Weigh out 20* r of the pow- 
der and transfer to a perfectly clean sieve. Sift out as much 
as possible, being careful that none is lost over the top. 
Weigh that remaining and multiply by 5 to determine the 
percent, of grit. This is the same as dividing by 20 and 
multiplying by 100, which is the theoretically correct way. 

Example : 

Weight of lime used 20.0 gr. 
Weight remaining in sieve 6.5 gr. 
6.5 -i- 20 = .325. .325 x 100 = 32.5 per cent. grit. 

or 
6.5 x 5 = 32.5 per cent. grit. 

The slacking test of BAUR and PORTIUS is made as fol- 
lows : Weigh out 20 gr of the powder and transfer to a 
beaker. Fill a 100 CC flask to the mark with water and note 
its temperature. Quickly pour the water over the lime in 
the beaker and stir with a centigrade thermometer. Take 
the temperature 15 seconds after starting, again in 15 
seconds, and then in 30 seconds, noting it at the end of each 
minute thereafter until the temperature begins to go down. 



Example : 
Temp, at start 


..18 


After 8 min , 


35 


After 15 sec 


. .19 


ii 9 " . 


36 


" 30 " . 


21 


" 10 *' . 


37 


" 1 min. 


23 


" 11 " 


37 V* 


u 2 " 


255^ 


I ( J-> C < 


38 


" 3 " . 


27 y> 


<c 13 |C . 


38^ 


" 4 " . 


29 


" 14 " . 


39 


" 5 " . 


31 


" 15 " . 


39 


" 6 " 




" 16 "... 


38^ 


7 " . 


..34 


" 17 " . 


..38 



80 STEFFENS' PROCESS ANALYSES. 

The object of the slacking test is to see how long it 
takes the lime to slack after the addition of water. A so- 
lution of molasses is substituted for the water when it is 
desired to learn the length of time required for slacking in 
the coolers, and the test is carried out the same as with 
water. The syrup solution should be of the same density 
as that regularly used in the StefTens' process. 

40. O) Waste Waters. Cold Waste Water is tested 
for density and sugar. It is not necessary to figure out the 
purity. The sample is put in a small test-tube with a foot 
(1) and the density taken with the 5-9 brix spindle de- 
scribed in 2b. A correction is made for temperature and 
is usually a subtractive one. Half normal weight is 
weighed out or if there is sufficient fluid, normal weight is 
taken, and is washed from the scoop into a 100 CC flask. 
Two or three drops of phenol are added and neutralization 
is effected with acetic acid. Use only enough acid to make 
the sample neutral, or very slightly acid, and if by acci- 
dent too much is added, use enough sodium carbonate solu- 
tion to bring the fluid back to nearly the neutral point. 
Clear with lead acetate if necessary, make up to the mark, 
filter and polarize. If half normal weight is used, multi- 
ply the reading by 2. 

() Hot Waste Water may be made by the pipette 
method or by weight, using double normal weight. In 
either case neutralize with acetic acid, as in the above par- 
agraph. Only the brix and per cent, sugar are recorded. 

41. Molasses Saccharate is usually tested only for 
CaO, which is found by neutralizing 10 CC with a normal 
acid. Multiply the number of cc of acid used by 10 and by 
028 for the per cent. 



STEFFENS' PROCESS ANALYSES. 8 1 

42. Molasses Solution. The purity is made by 
pipette or volumetrically. If alkaline, neutralize as in 3O, 
filter, and make the purity of the filtrate. 

43. Saccharate Milk is tested for per cent, sugar, 
density, and CaO. The sugar is found according to 38a, 
the density is taken with a brix spindle, and the CaO is 
found by neutralizing 10 CC with normal acid, as in 41. 




OF THB 

UNIVERSITY 



CHAPTER VI. 
INVERT SUGAR AND RAFFINOSE*. 

44. The Correct Percentage of Sucrose cannot be de- 
termined by means of the polariscope when any other sugar 
is present, such as raffinose, dextrose or laevulose, and 
whenever the presence of any of these is suspected, an 
analysis must be made by the inversion method given be- 
low. If the polarization before and after inversion is 
equal, only sucrose is present, but if it is either higher or 
lower after inversion than it was before, other sugars are 
contained. If higher, test for invert sugar, and if lower, 
test for raffinose. The other sugars need not be considered 
in beet work, dextrose or laevulose, when present being 
combined as invert sugar. 

To invert the substance to be analyzed weigh out half 
normal weight and transfer to a 100 CC flask, washing out 
the scoop with about 75 CC of water. After complete disso- 
lution add with a pipette 5 CC of hydrochloric acid of 1.188 
sp. g. (at 15C). Put the flask immediately into a water 
bath heated to 70, and leave for exactly 10 minutes, mov- 
ing occasionally. During this time the water must be kept 
at a temperature of from 67 to 70. At the expiration of 
the ten minutes cool the fluid quickly to 20 by setting the 
flask in cold water. Then fill to the 100 CC mark with water, 
shake well and filter. Clearing by lead acetate is not ad- 
missable, as it effects the turning of invert sugar considera- 
bly. If the solution is dark add about half a gramme of 
bone dust to the flask before filtering. 

45. Sucrose in the Presence of Invert Sugar. Po- 
larize the substance in the usual way, using a polarization 

* TT1T 45 and 46 adapted from Fruhling and Schulz. 



INVERT SUGAR AND RAFFINOSE. 83 

tube having a water jacket and introduced thermometer,* 
(F 42) noting the temperature at which the polarization is 
made. Then polarize the substance after inversion, as 
above described, at the same temperature as the original 
substance was polarized. The polarization, after inversion, 
must be multiplied by 2, as only half normal weight is 
used. From both polarization figures, by means of a 
formula, is found the percentage of sucrose in the sample 
tested. This formula expresses only the optical action of 
the sucrose, as the inversion does not change either dex- 
trose or invert sugar. It has been determined that a pure 
cane sugar solution which polarizes 100 at 0C in the 
200 mm tube of the apparatus with Ventzke's scale (13.024* r 
to 100 CC ), revolves 42.66, so that the entire diminishing of 
revolution (at 0C) amounts to 142.66. If the observation 
is not made at 0C, but at a higher temperature, there oc- 
curs, owing to a peculiar property of the invert sugar, a 
corresponding lessening of revolution, a diminishing of 0.5 
for 1C increase in temperature. Upon this observation is 
based the above-mentioned formula, named after Clerget. 
L,et S represent the whole diminishing of revolution before 
and after inversion, T the temperature (in Centigrade de- 
grees), which the inverted solution shows at the polariza- 
tion, and Z, the true contents of cane sugar, can be found 
according to the following formula : 

- 100 x S 



142. (56 (.5 x T) 

Example I : A sample of syrup polarizes before inver- 
sion 14.8, and after inversion 12.7. The latter polariza- 
tion must be doubled on account of using half-normal 

* This thermometer should be graduated in 1-10 degrees, Centigrade. 



8 4 



INVERT SUGAR AND RAFFINOSE. 



weight so that the entire diminishing of revolution S is 
14.8 + (2 x 12.7) = 40.2. The temperature at both polari- 
zations was 19. Therefore, 

100 x 40.2 4020 



z =. 



30.2 



142.66 (.5x19; 133.16 

Example II : A mixture of cane sugar and starch 
syrup polarizes + 71.4 before inversion, and after inversion 
-f 8.4. Doubling the latter quality, the diminishing of rev- 
clution S is 71.4 16.8 =54.6. The temperature is 18. 
Therefore, 



100 x 54.6 



5460 



40.85 



142.66 (.5 x 18) 133.66 

Using Table A, the percentage of cane sugar can be 
found by multiplying the diminishing of revolution by the 
factor corresponding to the temperature at which the test 
was made. 

TABLE A. 



Temp. C. 


Factor. 


Temp. C. 


Factor. 


Temp. C. 


Factor. 


10 


0.7257 


17o 


0.7454 


24o 


0.7653 


11 


. 7291 


18 


0.7482 


25 


. 7683 


12 


0.7317 


19 


. 7510 


26 


0.7712 


13 


. 7344 


20 


0.7538 


27 


. 7742 


14 


0.7371 


21 


. 7567 


28 


0.7772 


IS 


0.7397 


22 


0.7595 


29 


. 7802 


16 


. 7426 


23 


0.7624 


30 


. 7833 



The use of the table may be illustrated by the two ex- 
amples given above. 

In Example I. the total diminishing of revolution is 40.2 
and the temperature is 19. Therefore, 40.2 x .7510 = 30.19 
or 30.2, the cane sugar. 

In Example II. 54.6 is multiplied by .7482, giving a re- 
sult of. 40.85. 



INVERT SUGAR AND RAFFINOSK. 85 

46. Sucrose in the Presence of Raf finosc. The 

analysis follows exactly the directions given in the above 
paragraph, with the exception that the observation of the 
inverted fluid must always take place at 20C. The form- 
ula is also different, as it must consider, besides the differ- 
ence in the optical relation of cane sugar, also that of the 
raffinose, the revolution to the right of which goes back 
considerably through inversion. The formula based upon 
the above-mentioned ratio of figures at the inversion of 
cane sugar, as well as upon the polarization of pure crys- 
tallized raffinose (13.034* to lOCT) before inversion 
(4- 157.15) and alter inversion (+ 80.53) at 20C is as fol- 
lows : 

z (0.5124 xP) J 
0.839 

wherein Z represents the contents of cane sugar, P the po- 
larization of the substance before inversion, and J the 
polarization of the inverted solution, doubled on account 
of the use of half normal weight. As this formula is reck- 
oned only for the temperature of 20C, the expression T is 
omitted. 

Example : The after-product of a refinery polarized be- 
fore inversion r 94.5 and after inversion r 13.8 (at 20C.) 
From these figures a cane sugar content of 90.6 is calcu- 
lated according to the above formula. 

(.5124x94.5)4(2x13.8) 78.0218 

LI = i = = yu.o 

.8-39 .839 

47. The Percentage of Raffinose is found by sub- 
tracting the true contents of cane sugar from the polariz- 
ation before inversion, and dividing by 1.852. In the ex- 
ample in the above paragraph 

94.5 90.6 = 3.9. 
394 1.852 = 2.1 per cent, raffinose. 



86 INVERT SUGAR AND RAFFINOSE. 

48. Invert Sugar is determined by the use of the 

mixed Fehling's solutiou described iti 141. The execu- 
tion of the test is as follows : 

Weigh out a definite amount of the syrup or massecuite, 
dissolve and make up to 100 CC . The amount weighed out 
depends upon how much invert sugar is in the sample? but 
it should be some multiple of five gr. to make an easy cal- 
culation, and should be sufficient to give a burette read- 
ing of from 15 to 20 CC in the operations which follow. The 
diluted sample is placed in a burette graduated in 1.10 CC . 

In a porcelain casserole put 10 CC of the mixed Fehling's 
solution and add 30 CC of distilled water. Heat to boiling, 
add a portion of the solution to be tested and boil two 
minutes. Repeat this, adding the solution very slowly at 
the last, until the blue color of the fluid has apparently 
disappeared. Pour 3 or 4 CC of the hot fluid on a small 
filter, and test the filtrate for copper by adding a few drops 
of potassium ferrocyanide (solution of 20 gr to 1 liter,) after 
acidifying with a few drops of a 10 per cent, solution of 
acetic acid. If a brownish-red color shows, add 2 CC of the 
sugar solution to the copper fluid and boil again, repeating 
the ferrocyanide test. Continue this until the point is 
reached when there is no further reaction of copper. The 
reading of the burette is then observed to see how many 
cc of the sugar solution were necessary for the reduction 
of the copper. The test should always be repeated to in- 
sure accuracy. The calculation of the invert sugar is as 
follows : 

The value of the Fehling solution must be known, i. e. 
how much invert sugar is necessary to reduce 10 CC of the 
solution. For this purpose add to 9.5 grammes of chemi- 
cally pure sugar in a 100 CC flask, 5 CC of hydrochloric acid 



INVERT SUGAR AND RAFFINOSE. 87 

and invert according to the directions in 44. Make up 
to the mark and the flask contains 10 gr of invert sugar. 
Making 20 CC of this (2& r of invert sugar) up to 1 liter and 
neutralizing with sufficient sodium carbonate to turn a 
piece of litmus paper blue, gives a solution in which every 
cc contains 0.002s r of invert sugar. Making the test as 
above described it is tound how many 7 cubic centimeters of 
this solution correspond to the 10 CC of copper solution. For 
example, if 25.6 CC of the solution are used, it takes 25.6 x 
.002 = 0.051 2 r of invert sugar to reduce 10 CC of the Feh- 
ling solution. This 0.0512 is the factor F in the formula 
given below, but any other factor may be obtained in the 
same way : 

.002 x number of cc of standard solution used = F. 
From this the percentage of invert sugar is obtainable by the 

formula 

100 F 

X Y 

in which X represents the number of cc of unknown sugar solution 
required to precipitate the copper from 10 CC of Fehling solution and 
Y equals the weight of the material tested in each l cc of the 
w solution. 

Example : 

5s r of massecuite are dissolved in 100 CC of water, hence 

Y =0.05gr 

Let 18.5 represent the number of cc of the solution tested 
which are necessary to reduce the copper solution. Then 

X= 18.5. 

Let 0.0512 represent the factor F, obtained as above described. 
According to the formula, 

100 *.Q51 2== ill - 5.53, per cent, invert sugar. 
18.5 x .05 .925 * 

49. Soxhlet's Exact Method, as used by the ASSO- 
CIATION of OFFICIAL AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTS is as 
follows : 



88 INVERT SUGAR AND RAFFINOSE- 

A preliminary titration is made to determine the ap- 
proximate percentage of reducing sugar in the material 
under examination. A solution is prepared which contains 
approximately 1 per cent, of reducing sugar. Place in a 
beaker 100 CC of the mixed copper reagent and approxi- 
mately the amount of the sugar solution for its complete 
reduction. Boil for two minutes. Filter through a folded 
filter and test a portion of the filtrate for copper by use of 
acetic acid and potassium ferrocyanide. Repeat the test, 
varying the volume of sugar solution, until two successive 
amounts of sugar solution are found which differ by O.l cc , 
one giving complete reduction and the other leaving a small 
amount of copper in solution. The mean of these two 
readings is taken as the volume of the solution required for 
the complete precipitation of 100 CC of the copper reagent. 

Under these conditions 100 CC of the mixed copper rea- 
gent require 0.475 gram of anhydrous dextrose, or 0.494 
gram of invert sugar, for complete reduction. The per- 
centage is calculated by the following formula : 

W = the weight of the sample in 1<* of the sugar solution ; 
V = the volume of the sugar solution required for the complete 
reduction of 100 CC of the copper reagent. 

Then 10 x 475 = per cent, of dextrose, 
or : . = per cent, of invert sugar. 



PART II. 



ANALYSIS or SUPPLIES 



AND OTHER 



CHEMICAL WORK. 



CHAPTER VII. 
APPARATUS FOR CHEMICAL ANALYSIS. 

5O. The Apparatus used in the chemical analysis in 
beet sugar work is the same that is found in nearly all 
analytical laboratories, hence only a short description will 
be given of the apparatus most necessary, with a few sug- 
gestions as to their use. 

Beakers are preferably of the Griffin form, 
with lip, shown in Fig. 35. The sizes which 
will be most often used are the 5 and the 8 
ounce, and the 10, 12 and 15 ounce are occa- 
sionally used. The larger sizes 30 and 40 

ounce are often serviceable for mixing v -^ 

solutions. The conical assay flask Fig. 35. 
(Fig. 36) of 4 oz. capacity is the best 
form for dissolving metals or stones with acids, 
as in the limestone analysis. 

Glass Rods tipped with rubber are used for 
stirring and for pouring precipitated solutions on 
filter paper as in Fig. 37. Tallow is rubbed with the 
greased finger under the lip of the beaker before this opera- 
tion. Rods % inch in diameter are of the best size. For 
cleaning residues from platinum or porcelain dishes, a glass 
rod bent at right angles about half an inch from one end, 
and covered with a short piece of rubber tubing may be 
used. 

Funnels used in chemical analysis are from 1 to 2^ 
inches in diameter, the 2-inch size being the one most gen- 
erally needed. They should have long stems and should 
be on an angle of 60. In filtering, the stem of the funnel 




APPARATUS FOR CHEMICAL ANALYSIS. 



should be placed against the side 
of the beaker receiving the fil- 
trate to prevent splattering of 
the fluid. 

Filter Paper should be of the 
Swedish quality. It leaves the 
least ash of any filter paper 
known, and in the analyses out- 
lined in the following chapters, 
no account is taken of the weight 
of the ash of the filter paper 
after incineration, as it is insig- 
nificant except in the most deli- 
cate determinations. The paper 
should be cut round and of such 
size that it will be about half 
filled with the precipitate. In 
all cases, except those specially 
noted, the filter paper should be 





Fig. 38. 



Fig. 37. 

fitted on the funnel and moist- 
ened with distilled water. One 
of the principal sources of error 
in analysis is that precipitates 
are not thoroughly washed. In 
nearly all cases it is better to 
wash the precipitate by de- 
cantation as described in 59. 
After the precipitate is on 
the filter, it should be washed 
with distilled water until no trace 
of solid matter is given in the 
filtrate. This is tested by letting 



APPARATUS FOR CHEMICAL ANALYSIS. 



a drop from the stem of the funnel fall upon the perfectly 
clean surface of a small piece of platinum foil or crucible 
cover. Dry, and if a residue remains, the precipitate has 
been thoroughly washed. Wash again and repeat the test 
until no residue remains. Another method is described in 
the paragraph above cited (59) by testing with silver 
nitrate, and can be used in many instances in sugar labor- 
atories, as solutions often contain hydrochloric acid or 
chlorine in some other form. After filtering, the funnel 
containing the precipitate is placed in a drying oven (Fig. 
38) the funnel being covered with a moistened piece of 
filter paper turned down over the rim to keep out dust. 

Dessicators are for the puipose of keeping hot sub- 
stances from absorbing 
moisture while cooling, and 
for carrying them to the 
balance. A good form is 
shown in Fig. 39. The 
bottom is filled with fused 
calcium chloride to keep 
the air dry. The lid and 
the part of the dessicator 

where it joins are ground, and tallow is used to make the 

apparatus air-tight. 

Crucibles and Dishes for incinerating should be of 
platinum, but in some analyses porcelain is to be used. 
Sapolio is one of the best agents for cleaning dishes and 
crucibles of all kinds. After a magnesium precipitate is 
burned with nitric acid (58) the crucible should be partly 
filled with concentrated hydrochloric acid and allowed to 
stand until the precipitate is loosened or dissolved. 




APPARATUS FOR CHEMICAL ANALYSIS- 



93 




Lamps and Stoves. Gas burners are to be preferred, of 
course, but sugar factories are generally so located that gas 
is not obtainable. The gasoline 
stove shown in Fig. 40 is to be rec- 
ommended, as enough heat can be 
generated by it to effect any incin- 
eration liable to be made, and the 
flame can be lowered when neces- 
sary, to give a very moderate heat. 
To give a good flame, the reservoir 
of the stove should never be filled 
more than two-thirds full. Alco- 
hol lamps should be used for 
evaporating and for heating solu- 
tions. The best form has a 
Fig- 40. side tubulation for filling. 

Coal-oillamp stoves 
(F. 33) may be used 
in place of the al- 
cohol lamps, but 
great care must be 
taken with them, 
on account of the 
danger of smoking 
and the accumula- 
tion of soot. The 
blue flame kerosene 
stoves of recent in- 
vention are excel- 
lent for laboratory 
use, the only ob- 
jection to them be- 
ing that they occu- 
py too much space. 




Fig. 41. 



94 APPARATUS FOR CHEMICAL ANALYSIS. 

Other Apparatus* Evaporation dishes should be of por- 
celain as described in 53. Scales and Weights are de- 
scribed in 8. Fig. 41 shows the short-arm chemical scale, 
which form is generally accepted to be the best. Washing 
Bottles for containing alcohol, dilute, acids, etc., should be of 
about 300 cc capacity and made as in 9c (see F37). Burettes 
are the same as those used in sugar analysis (9d). Pipettes 
most used are graduated to 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 CC . They 
are tested as described in 4 . Lampstands should be fitted 
with two extension rings and an extension clamp, the 
rings being of about two and four inches inside diameter. 
Water Baths are of copper with a covering of concentric 
rings, and should be six or seven inches in diameter. 
Crucible Tongs are of various forms, one of the 
best being shown in Fig. 42. The tips should be 
nickel plated. Graduated Cylinders or the usual 
graduates divided into cubic centimeters (F) 
may be used for measuring fluids, 250 CC being the 
most desirable capacity. Mortars for powdering 
lime stone and other samples should be of por- 
celain and of the form shown in F 10. The 
iron mortar shown in F 11 is also often serviceable. Vol- 
umetric Flasks of 500 CC and 1 liter capacity are necessary 
for making solutions of known strength. Flasks of 200 CC 
or 250 CC capacity are used in many analyses. ALKALIMITERS 
and other special apparatus are described under the para- 
graphs in which their use is noted. 





CHAPTER VIII. 
WATER ANALYSIS. 

51. Water. The examination of water for use in 
beet sugar manufacture is usually confined to the estimation 
of carbonic and sulphuric acids, chlorine, silica, iron and 
aluminium oxides, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, and 
the alkalies, sodium and potassium. As potassium is 
usually present in only very minute quantities, as compared 
with sodium, it is not necessary, except in very exact 
analysis, to determine it separately. The two alkalies are 
estimated together and are called sodium, the potassium 
not being counted. Nitric acid is present in such small 
quantities in water that it its determination is not consid- 
ered of importance in sugar work. The analysis as out- 
lined above may be called the "actual analysis;" the 
"figured analysis " is described in 62. 

52. The Sample. About 4 liters of the water should 
be taken for analysis. A gallon demijohn is a convenient 
vessel for holding the sample. It should be thoroughly 
cleaned and well corked and no luting of any kind should 
be used on the cork. The sample should be as near an 
average as possible, and if taken from a faucet the water 
should be allowed to run for a considerable time. In case 
of a river, take the sample from the middle of the stream. 
Collect the water with a cup or other small vessel, taking 
the samples at short intervals until sufficient is obtained for 
the large sample. 

53. The Mineral Substance. Filter 2 liters of the 
water and evaporate to dryness. This is best effected in a 
porcelain dish over a direct flame. Do not use a glass ves- 




96 WATER ANALYSIS. 

sel, as the water attacks it. A dish about 8 inches in di- 
ameter, and of the shape shown in Fig. 43, is convenient. 
When the water has evaporated to about 
50 CC , transfer to a weighted platinum dish 
and complete the evaporation on a water 
bath. The substance remaining on the 
sides of the porcelain dish may be washed 
into the platinum dish as fast as the 
evaporation makes room. Use a glass rod 
tipped with rubber for cleaning the porcelain dish. After 
evaporation, place in the drying oven at 105C, until the 
last water is driven off. Cool in a dessicator and weigh. 
The weight is the total residue and is figured, as in the 
whole analysis, on 100,000 parts of water. Ignite slowly 
to a dull red heat, until all organic matter is consumed. 
This also occasions a loss of constitutional (hydrate) water 
and a slight loss by reduction of nitrates. After cooling 
and weighing, the amount found to have been burned 
away is written lost by combustion. The total residue minus 
the amount lost by combustion is called the mineral substance. 

Example : 

Weight of residue after drying 28.195gr 

Weight of platinum dish 26.421g f 

Weight of total residue 1.776g r 

Weight of residue after drying ... 28. 1 95 

Weight of residue after burning 27.957 



Weight lost by combustion 238 

Weight of total residue 1.776 

Weight lost by combustion 238 

Weight of mineral substance 1.538 



WATER ANALYSIS. 97 

These weights are obtained from 2,000 CC and, as the 
analysis is figured on 100,000 parts of water, we multiply 
by 50, or divide by 2 and multiply by 100, which is an 
easier way to figure. This gives a result of 

Total residue 88.8 parts in 100,000 

Lost by combustion 11.9 " 

Mineral substance 76.9 " " 

54.* Carbonic Acid which is in combination with 
bases is determined by means of an alkalimeter. The 
form generally preferred is Geissler's apparatus, a mod- 
ification of which is the Peffer alkalimeter shown in 
Fig. 44. This apparatus is designed especially for the 
determination of carbonic acid (CO 2 , carbon dioxide) in 
water, its form being such that the substance used for 
the CO 2 test can be easily removed for use in other analy- 
ses. Its manipulation is as follows : 

Pure hydrochloric acid is introduced into B through 
the opening D. Having seen that the cock F is 
perfectly tight, both B and I are removed and placed 
standing in a beaker, clamps of a lamp-stand, or some 
other safe and convenient place. The residue, after 
burning away the organic matter (,49), is taken up 
with the least amount of water and transferred to the 

*WANKLYN measures carbonic acid in water by "taking advantage of the 
insolubility of carbonate of lime in the ptesence of lime-water. For this pur- 
pose lime-water is prepared by taking slaked lime and shaking it up with dis- 
tilled water, and then allowing to settle, and ultimately decanting the clear 
supernatent lime-water. One liter of lime-water contains 1.372 gr. of CaO." Use 
500cc of the water to be analyzed and mix it with 215cc of the lime-water in a 
stoppered vessel. "The mixture is allowed to stand until the precipitate of 
CaOCO 2 has settled and the supernatent liquid becomes clear. The liquid is de- 
canted and the precipitate placed on a filter, slightly washed, burned in a plati- 
num dish or crucible, and finally weighed." This precipitate must be burned as 
described in 57 Multiply the resulting weight of calcium carbonate by 2and by 
100 to find the amount in 100,000 parts of water, and multiply this by .44 (the fac- 
tor) to find the amount of CO 2 . 



9 8 



WATER ANALYSIS. 



flask A, through the opening- H. The substance in the 
flask should not be higher than that shown in the illus- 
tration to effect an accurate analysis. Replace B and I 
in the apparatus and add pure sulphuric acid to I through 
the opening E. All the joints should be made air-tight 
by the use of a very slight amount of tallow. Wipe off 




Fig. 44. 

the apparatus thoroughly, dry and weigh carefully, re- 
cording the weight. Now open the cock F and allow a 
small amount of the HC1 to go into A. Carbonic acid is 
freed and passes in C, through I, and out at E, the sul- 



WATER ANALYSIS. 99 

phuric acid drying- it. As fast as effervesence ceases, 
add more of the acid until all the HC1 is in A. Then 
carefully heat the bottom of the apparatus until the con- 
tents are nearly to boiling- point. This is best done by 
fixing- the alkalimeter on a lamp stand and g"ently 
moving- the flame to and fro under it. Five minutes' 
heating- is usually sufficient. Allow the apparatus to 
cool and attach a small rubber tube, about ten inches 
long-, to the top of C. Open the cock F and, by aspira- 
tion, draw out slowly throug-h the tube any g-as that 
may remain in A. Detach the tube, wipe off the alkalim- 
eter and weig-h ag-ain. The weight lost is CO 2 . 



Example : 

Weight of apparatus and contents before operation . . . 75.5478 r 

Weight of apparatus and contents after operation 75.383s r 

Weight of CO 2 lost 164s r 

Dividing by 2 and multiplying by 100 = 8.2, the amount of 
CO 2 in 100,000 parts of water. 



55. Silica. Transfer the contents of the alkalimeter 
to a platinum dish and evaporate to dryness. This coagu- 
lates silicic acid that would otherwise go into solution 
in the operation which follows. Take up the substance 
in the dish with water and a little diluted hydrochloric 
acid, and filter into a 200 CC flask. Wash the paper and 
residue thoroughly with hot water. The residue may 
contain some insoluble iron and aluminum and calcium 
sulphate (STILLMAN) but it is nearly all silica (SiO 2 ) and 
is dried, burned and weighed as such. 



100 WATER ANALYSIS. 

Example : 

Weight of crucible and residue 11.148gr 

Weight of crucible , . 11.090g r 



Weight of residue (silica) 058g r 

Dividing by 2 and multiplying by 100 = 2.9, the silica. 

56. Iron and Aluminum Oxides. The 200 CC flask 
containing- the filtrate in 55 is allowed to cool and is then 
filled to the mark and well shaken. Transfer 50 CC of 
this solution to a beaker and make slig-htly alkaline 
with ammonia water. This may be tested by dropping- 
a small piece of litmus paper in the fluid. Heat to 
nearly boiling- and iron and aluminum oxides will be 
precipitated. The use of an excess of ammonia is to be 
avoided. Filter and wash with the smallest amount of 
hot water necessary. Dry and burn the precipitate as 
iron and aluminum oxides. 

Example : 

Weight of crucible and precipitate 11.095 

Weight of crucible . .11.090 



Weight of precipitate (Fe 2 O 3 and A1 2 O 3 ) 005 

As two liters are represented in the 200 CC filtrate, 50 CC 
of it corresponds to 500 CC , hence the weig-ht obtained 
above must be multiplied by 2 and by 100, to g-ive the 
parts in 100,000 parts water. 

.005 x 2 x 100 = 1.0, amount of Fe 2 O 3 and A1 2 O 3 . 

57. Calcium Oxide. Make the filtrate in 56 slig-htly 
acid by the addition of acetic acid*. Heat to nearly 

* Acetic acid is added to prevent the precipitation of any magnesium as mag- 
nesium oxalate. Chemists are not agreed as to whether this is necessary, but 
the acid does no harm, and may do good. 



WATER ANALYSIS. IOI 

boiling", and add ammonium oxalate when calcium oxa- 
late will be precipitated. Keep the above heat for about 
five minutes and then allow to cool. If -the precipitate 
subsides immediately it is usually evidence that all the 
calcium has been precipitated, but if the supernatent 
fluid remains milky for some time, heat again and add 
ammonia oxalate. Even if the precipitate subsides 
almost immediately, add a slight amount of the 
reagent to see if this addition causes a precipitation. 
After cooling-, filter and wash with warm very dilute 
acetic acid. Wash the precipitate all into the apex of 
the filter paper. Dry, and burn as follows : Separate 
the precipitate from the filter paper with a clean knife 
blade; burn the paper until it gives a white ash, then 
lower the flame, add the precipitate to the crucible and 
burn at a heat which turns the part of the crucible 
nearest the flame to a dull red. In burning-, the calcium 
oxalate becomes calcium carbonate, 

CaC 2 4 =CaC0 3 + CO (burned away.) 

At a hig-h heat the CO 2 would also be driven off, leav- 
ing- only calcium oxide (CaO). The precipitate turns 
black and when it has become white ag-ain it has been 
sufficiently burned. At this point moisten with ammonium 
carbonate and heat carefully until all odor of ammonia 
is- driven off. This will restore any CO 2 that may have 
been burned away. Cool and weig-h as calcium carbo- 
nate, multiplying- by .56 to get the weight of calcium 
oxide. 

Example : 

Weight of crucible and precipitate 11.237gr 

Weight of crucible 11.0908 r 

Weight of precipitate (CaCO 3 ) 147gr 



102 WATER ANALYSIS. 

As in the above paragraph, multiplying- by 2 and by 
100 = 29.4, the calcium carbonate. 

29.4 x .56 = 16.464 or 16.46, the calcium oxide. 

58. Magnesium Oxide. When the filtrate in 57 is 
cool, add to it ammonia water in excess,* and sodium 
phosphate. (In very dilute solutions, the addition of 2 
or 3 gr of crystallized ammonium chloride will hasten 
precipitation.) Let stand (not in a warm place) for 12 
hours and magnesium ammonium phosphate will be pre- 
cipitated. Filter and wash with the precipitate with a 
mixture of strong* ammonia diluted with an equal 
amount of water (WANKLYN). Magnesium ammo- 
nium phosphate is soluble in water to some extent, and 
this is prevented almost entirely by the liberal use of 
ammonia. Dry the precipitate and burn. In burning-, 
the mag-nesium ammonium phosphate becomes mag-ne- 
sium pyrophosphate : 

2NH 4 MgPO 4 = 2NH 3 + H 2 O -j- Mg 2 P 2 Or. 
The addition of nitric acid to the crucible after burn- 
ing- for a little while will make the pyrophosphate yield 
a white residue. Cool the crucible before adding- the 
acid, and then apply the heat slowly to prevent any loss 
of substance. When ig-nition is complete, cool and 
weig-h, and multiply by .3602 to find the amount of mag-- 
nesium oxide. 

Example : 
Weight of crucible and precipitate ........................ 11.160gr 

Weight of crucible ....................................... 11.0908 r 



Weight of precipitate (Mg 2 P 2 O 7 ) 
.07 x 2 x 100 = 14, the magnesium pyrophosphate. 
14 x .3602 = 5.04, the magnesium oxide. 



* Add ammonia water to about % the amount of the original filtrate. 

KlSSBL. 



WATER ANALYSIS. 103 

59. Sulphuric Acid. Measure off 50 CC of the solution 
in 56, and put in a beaker. Heat nearly to boiling- 
point and add barium chloride in slight excess. The 
precipitate is barium sulphate. Heat for a few minutes 
long-er and allow to stand for about three hours in a 
warm place. Filter off the supernatent fluid, then add 
boiling- water to the precipitate in the beaker and stir 
well. Allow to settle and ag-ain filter off the fluid. Add 
boiling- water and repeat the above operation until the 
filtrate g-ives no traces of chlorine. This can be tested 
by allowing- a few drops from the stem of the funnel to 
fall into a small test tube containing- a solution of silver 
nitrate. A white precipitate indicates chlorine. When 
the filtrate is free from chlorine, transfer the precipitate 
to the filter paper, wash with hot water, dry and burn at 
a moderate red heat. Weig-h as barium sulphate and 
multiply by .3431 to find the weig-ht of sulphuric acid 
(sulphuric anhydride, SO 3 .) 

Example : 

Weight of crucible and precipitate .11 553 

Weight of crucible 11.090 

Weight of precipitate ( BaSO 4 ) . ., 463 

.463 x 2 x 100 = 92 6, the barium sulphate. 
92.6 x .3431 = 31.77, the sulphuric acid. 

The determination of sulphuric acid requires the 
greatest care and attention, to give accurate results. 
The precipitate is very liable to carry down with it such 
foreign salts as the alkalies, alkali-earth metals and iron 
oxide, and if the barium chloride solution is too concen- 
trated, there will be traces of it in the barium sulphate. 
A thoroug-h washing-, as above described, will usually 
give accurate results. Sulphuric acid is precipitated 
more readily in dilute than in concentrated solutions, and 



104 WATER ANALYSIS. 

some analysts prefer to make the determination with a 
separate portion of water, evaporating- 200 CC or 500 CC to 
about >2 , and continuing- as above. 

6O. Sodium. Use 50 CC of the 200 CC solution in 56. 
If the solution is very strongly acid, add sufficient am- 
monia to bring- it nearly neutral. Heat nearly to boiling- 
and add an excess of baryta water. The salts of cal- 
cium, mag-nesium, iron and aluminum, and also silicic 
and sulphuric acids, will be precipitated. Filter while 
hot and wash with hot water. Heat ag-ain to nearly 
boiling- point and add a few drops of ammonia and then 
sufficient ammonium carbonate to precipitate the barium 
present. Filter and evaporate to dryness, with the addi- 
tion of a few drops of ammonium oxalate solution, to 
precipitate any traces of calcium salts which may have 
remained. Dry at 120, and over a low flame burn care- 
fully until all odor of ammonia is g-one. Take up the 
residue with hot water and filter. To the nitrate add a 
few cc of hydrochloric acid and evaporate to dryness in a 
weig-hed platinum dish. The residue consists of the 
alkali chlorides, the addition of the hydrochloric acid 
having- made the chlorine combination. As stated be- 
fore, potassium is present in natural waters in such 
small quantities in comparison to sodium, that the whole 
residue is called sodium chloride. It is calculated to so- 
dium by multiplying- with the factor 0.3940. 

Example : 

Weight of dish and residue 26.388 

Weight of dish 26.276 

Weight of residue (NaCl) 1 12 

.112 x 2 x 100 = 22.4, the sodium chloride. 
22.4 x .3940 = 8.82, the sodium. 



WATER ANALYSIS. 105 

61. Chlorine is determined by use of a standard so- 
lution of silver nitrate (14O), of which one cubic centi- 
meter will precipitate one milligramme of chlorine. Add 
a few drops of potassium chromate to 100 CC of the water 
sample, or to a larger volume evaporated to about 100 CC , 
which should be made faintly alkaline by the addition of 
a little sodium carbonate. From a burette carefully add 
the silver nitrate solution, stirring- constantly. Each 
drop of the solution forms a red spot of silver chromate, 
which decomposes upon stirring-. At the very earliest 
point when this red coloration becomes permanent, the 
burette should be read, and the number noted of the 
cc of solution used. As each cc denotes the number of 
milligrammes of chlorine in the sample, the calculation 
of the percentag-e is easy. 

Example : 

lOOOcc of water are evaporated to about lOQcc and tested as 
above, 32.1 c c of solution being necessary to precipitate the chlorine. 

32. l cc solution = 32.1 mg of chlorine, or 0.0321gr. 

.032Ur in lOOOcc = 3.2lsr in lOO.OOQcc, 

or, 3.21 parts chlorine in 100,000 parts water. 

62. The Figured Analysis is a calculation which 
shows in what form the bases and acids found in the 
actual analysis are combined in the water. The arrang-e- 
ment is usually the same, but if the chemist has reason 
to believe that another combination is more correct, he is 
allowed a certain latitude. 

Silica is put down in the free state, unless there 
should be an insufficient amount of CO 2) SO 3 and Cl to 
combine with the bases, in which case enoug-h silica is 
used to combine with whatever sodium may remain to 



106 WATER ANALYSIS. 

form sodium silicate (Na 2 SiO 3 .) Iron and aluminum 
oxides are recorded as such. 

The figuring* is begun with chlorine. It is combined 
with sodium as sodium chloride (NaCl). If there is an ex- 
cess of chlorine, it is combined with magnesium (MgfCl ) 
but if the sodium is in excess, the remainder is com- 
bined with sulphuric acid as sodium sulphate (Na 2 SO 4 ). 
In this case oxygen has to be "borrowed." The re- 
mainder of the sulphuric acid is combined with mag- 
nesium oxide as magnesium sulphate ( MgSO 4 ) and if 
there is not sufficient .magnesium oxide, whatever sul- 
phuric acid may then remain is combined with calcium 
oxide as calcium sulphate ( CaSO 4 ). On the other 
hand, if magnesium oxide is in excess of the remaining 
sulphuric acid, the excess is combined with carbonic acid 
as magnesium carbonate ( MgCO 3 ) and the calcium 
oxide combined with the remaining carbonic acid, as cal- 
cium carbonate ( CaCO 3 ). The calcium oxide and 
carbonic acid should almost invariably be combined as 
much as possible. However, when the evaporated water 
is strongly alkaline, sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ) is pres- 
ent, and part of the carbonic acid should be combined 
with sodium. 

All calculations may be performed by the use of 
factors. To illustrate the figured analysis, the examples 
given in this chapter will be taken. 

Resume : 

Carbonic Acid ( CO 2 ) 8.20 

Silica ( SiO 2 ) 2.90 

Iron and Aluminium Oxides ( Fe 2 O 3 and A1 2 O 3 ) 1.00 

Calcium Oxide 16.46 

Magnesium Oxide 5.04 

Sulphuric Acid (SO 3 ) 31.77 

Sodium 8.82 

Chlorine . , . 3.21 



WATER ANALYSIS. 1 07 

The following is the figured analysis: 

NaCl= 5.29 (all Cl x 1.6503) 2. 09 Na used. 

Na 2 SO 4 =20.75 (6.73 Na x 3.083) 11.69 SO 3 used, 6.73 " 2.33 O used 

MgSO 4 = 15.13 (all MgOx3.0015)10.09 " 8.82 all of Na. 

CaSO4=i6.98(9.99SO 3 xl. 6996) 9.99 " 6.99 CaO used. 

CaCO 3 =16.91(9.47CaOxl. 7856)31. 77 all of SO 3 9.47 

== 7.44 CO 2 used 

C() 2 = .76 (in excess). .. .16.46 all of CaO .76 

SiO 2 = 2.90 8.20 all of CO 2 

Fe*Al= 1 00. 

In the above calculation it is necessary to take 2.33 
parts of oxygen for combination with sodium sulphate, 
and 0.76 parts of carbonic acid are in excess. Both 
these are ^recorded in the following form of "full 
analysis:" 

In 100,000 parts water. 

Total solids 88 .8 

Lost by combustion 11.9 

Mineral substance . 76 . 9 

Silica 2. 90 or Silica 2.90 

Iron and Aluminum Oxides 1.00 Iron and Aluminum Oxides 1.00 

Carbonic Acid (CO 2 ) 8.20 Carbonic Acid (CO 2 ) 76 

Calcium Oxide 16.46 Calcium Carbonate 16.91 

Sulphuric Acid (SO 3 ) 31.76 Calcium Sulphate 16.98 

Magnesium Oxide 5.04 Magnesium Sulphate ... .15.13 

Chlorine 3 .21 Sodium Chloride 5 29 

Sodium [882 Sodium Sulphate 20.75 

(Oxygen for Na 2 SO 4 ) J 2 33 



79.72 79.72 



This method of analysis gives a double check on the 
results. The total of the "actual analysis" should be 



108 WATER ANALYSIS. 

the same as the total of the "figured analysis," and each 
should be equal to or only slightly more than the min- 
eral substance found by direct analysis. In the example 
above given the mineral substance is 76.9 and the total 
found by individual analyses is 79.72, a difference of 2.82. 
It rarely occurs, on account of unavoidable errors, that 
the two will exactly agree, but the difference ought not 
to exceed that in the example*. 



* The-student is referred to Fresenius' quantitative analysis (second Ameri- 
can edition) pages 207, 208 and 209, also pages 842 and 843. 



CHAPTER IX. 
LIMESTONE ANALYSIS. 

63. A Complete Analysis of limestone is unneces- 
sary in sugar work. It is sufficient to find the principal 
constituents, which are silica, iron and aluminium 
oxides, calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate and 
calcium sulphate. It is also usual to make a moisture 
determination. Organic matter, phosphoric acid, alkali 
silicates, etc., are not determined. 

64. Preparation of Sample. The sample consists of 
six or eight small stones, which represent an average of 
the quarry from which they are taken. The stones are 
broken and from each one a couple of pieces weighing 
about half a gramme each are taken to make up the 
sample for analyzing. The pieces should not be taken 
from the outside of the stone, which may have suffered 
decomposition, and should be free from any streaks of 
iron, or sulphides, or other matter which is not generally 
present in the stone. Transfer to a clean porcelain 
mortar and reduce to a very fine powder. 

65. Moisture. Weigh out 2}^ 8r of the powdered 
sample on a watch glass and dry for an hour at 110- 
120C. Cool in a dessicator and weigh again. The weight 
lost is water ; divided by 2^2 , the weight of substance 
used, and multiplied by 100, will give the percentage. 

Example : 

Weight of watchglass and stone before drying .............. 35.942gr 

Weight of watchglass and stone after drying ............... 35.934gr 

Weight lost (moisture) 
.008 -r 2.5 = .0032. .0032 x 100 == .32 per cent moisture. 



OF THE 



110 LIMESTONE ANALYSIS. 

66. Carbonic Acid. (Carbon dioxide, CO 2 .) The 
dried sample, after the moisture is determined, is trans- 
ferred to an alkalimeter, and the percentage of CO 2 is 
determined, as in 54. 

Example : 

Weight of apparatus and contents 77.803gr 

Weight of same after operation 76.766gr 



Weight lost (CO 2 ) 1.037gr 

1.037 ~ 2.5 = .4148. .4148 x 100 = 41.48 per cent, carbonic acid. 

67. Silica. ( SiO 2 ) The contents of the alkalim- 
eter are transferred to a platinum dish and evaporated 
to dryness. Take up the residue with dilute hydrochlo- 
ric acid (1 part acid, 4 parts water) and filter into a 
250 CC flask. Wash the residue in the filter thoroughly 
with hot water, and then dry it at 100. Burn in a tared 
crucible, over a moderate flame. Cool and weigh. As 
the substance tested weighed 2>^ gr , the weight of silica 
obtained must be divided by 5 and multiplied by 2, to de- 
termine the weight in l gr . This multiplied by 100 will 
give the percentage of silica. 

Example : 

Weight of crucible and residue 11.146gr 

Weight of crucible 11.088*r 

Weight of residue (silica) 058g r 

.058 -4- 5 = .0116. .0116 x 2 = .0232. 

.0232 x 100 = 2.32 per cent, silica. 

68. Iron and Aluminum Oxides. (Fe 2 O., and A1 2 O 3 .) 
When the filtrate in 67 is cool, fill the flask to the 
mark with water. Shake well and measure off 50 CC . 
Make alkaline with ammonia and precipitate, filter and 



LIMESTONE ANALYSIS. Ill 





ecPxo 



burn the iron and al^Bium oxides, as described in 56. 
The weig-ht obtained^orresponds to >^ gr of the stone 
and must be multiplied by 2 and 100 to give the per- 
centage. 

Example : 

Weight of crucible and precipitate 11.0948 r 

Weight of crucible 11.088 r 



Weight of precipitate (Fe 2 O 3 and A1 2 O 3 ) 0068 r 

.006 x 2 x 100 = 1.2 per cent iron and aluminium oxide. 



g>9. Calcium Oxide (Ca^. The nitrate from the 
iron and aluminum precipidjBn is heated with the ad- 
oition of acetic acid, and calcium oxide is determined as 
in 57. The resulting- weig-ht must be multiplied by 2 
and 100 to^ive the percentag-e of CaO in the stone. 

Example : 

Weight of crucible and precipitate 11 .557g r 

Weight of crucible 11.088gr 

Weight of precipitate (CaCO 3 ) , 469gr 

- . 469x2 + 100 93.8^f cen t. CaCO 3 . 
93. 8 x .56 =52. 528 or 52. 53 per cent. CaO. 

7O. Magnesium Oxide (Mg-O) is determined as in 
58. The percentag-e is found by multiplying- the weig-ht 
of mag-nesium oxide by 2 and 100 as above. 

Example : 

Weight of crucible and precipitate 11 . 103gr 

Weight of crucible 11 . 0888 r 

Weight of precipitate (Mg 2 P 2 O 7 ) 015r 

.015 x .3602 = .0054, weight of magnesium oxide. 
. 0054 x2xlOO = 1.08 per cent, magnesium oxide . 



112 LIMESTONE ANALYSIS. 

71. Sulphuric Acid (SO 3 ) is determined by precipita- 
tion as barium sulphate as in 59V* From the 250 CC flask 
containing- the original solution (67 and 68) 50 CC is 
measured off and used for the determination. The 
weight obtained is multiplied by 2 and 100 to find the 
percentag-e. 
Example : 

Weight of crucible and precipitate ............ , ........... 11 . 103s r 

Weight of crucible ........................................ 11 . 088s r 



Weight of precipitate (BaSO 4 ) 
. 015 x .3431= .00515, weight of SO3. 
. 00515 x 2x 100 ==1.03 per cent, sulphuric acid. 

72. The Figured Analysis is calculated in the same 
manner as that described in water analysis with the 
difference that there are fewer constituents to consider. 
Moisture, silica and the oxides of iron and aluminum are 
set down as determined. Sulphuric acid is combined 
with calcium oxide, the remaining 1 calcium oxide being- 
combined with carbonic acid. The remaining- carbonic 
acid is combined with mag-nesium oxide. It usually 
happens that the carbonic acid is >a trifle too much or 
too little to make the combinations exact, but the excess 
of CO 2 or Mg-O must always be recorded. 

The form g-iven below may be used for recording- 
analyses, the actual analysis being- on the left and the 
fig-ured analysis on the rig-ht. In the latter the calcium 
sulphate is determined by multiplying- the sulphuric 
acid by 1.6996, the factor; the calcium oxide which re- 
mains is multiplied by 1.7856, to g-ive the calcium car- 
bonate ; and the carbonic acid which remains, 
multiplied by 1.9091, gives the mag-nesium carbonate, an 
excess of magnesium carbonate being- left. 



LIMESTONE ANALYSIS. 113 

Limestone Sample : 

Moisture 32 o/ Moisture 32 

Silica 2.32 Silica 232 

Iron and Aluminum Ox- Iron and Aluminum Ox- 
ides 1.20 ides 1.20 

Calcium Oxide 52.53 Calcium Carbonate 92 51 

Magnesium Oxide 1.08 Calcium Sulphate 1.75 

Sulphuric Acid (SO 3 ) 1 03 Magnesium Carbonate 1.49 

Carbonic Acid (CO 2 ) 41.48 Excess Magnesium Oxide. 37 

Undetermined . .04 Undetermined . . .04 



100.00 100.00 

The value of the limestone depends upon the amount 
of good lime which can be burned from it at the least 
cost. The best stone usually has 95 or 96 per cent, cal- 
cium carbonate, and no calcium sulphate. When the 
Steffens' process is used, the best stone is dependent both 
upon the salts in the molasses and the time it takes for 
the lime to slake, which is burned from the stone. 

73. Lime may be analyzed according- to the method 
g-iven for limestone. If any sulphuric acid is present it 
is combined with calcium oxide. The carbonic acid is 
combined with mag-nesium oxide, and the excess with 
calcium oxide. The remaining- calcium oxide is recorded 
as lime. 



CHAPTER X. 
COAL, COKE, AND FUEL OIL. 

74. Coal* The estimation of moisture, coke and 
volatile matters, and ash are required in coal analysis. 
To determine the moisture weigh out 10 gr of a powdered 
average sample and heat at 110-115C for one hour. 
This is a sufficient length of time to drive off all the 
water, and in a longer heating there is danger of the 
sample gaining in weight by the oxidation of sulphides 
and hydrocarbons. (PRESENIUS.) Cool in a dessicator 
and weigh. The loss is moisture. 

Take 1-10 of the dried coal (representing l r of the 
original sample) and burn over an exceedingly hot flame 
until all carbonaceous matter is consumed and the ash is 
white or reddish colored. Cool in a dessicator and 
weigh. The loss is put down as coke and volatile mat- 
ters and the remainder is ash. The complete analysis 
is figured as follows: 

Weight of dish and coal 36.282gr 

Weight of dish ' 26.282gr 

Coal taken lO.OOOgr 

Dish and coal before drying 36 . 2828 r 

Dish and coal after drying 36.222gr 

Water lost 060gr 

.060 ~ 10 x 100 = .60 per cent, mosture. 

10gr_ .060gr = 9. 940gr remaining, 1-10 of 9.94gr = .994gr. 

Weight of crucible and coal 15 . 337gr 

Weight of crucible 14.343gr 

Coal taken . 994gr 



COAL, COKE AND FUEL OIL. 115 

Weight of crucible and coal before burning 15.337 r 

Weight of crucible and ash after burning 14.3968 r 

Coke and volatile matters lost 941gr 

.941 -f- 1 x 100 = 94. 1, per cent, coke and volatile matters. 

Weight of crucible and ash 14.3%gr 

Weight of crucible 14.343*r 

Weight of ash 053S r 

. 053 -: 1 x 100 = 5 3, per cent. ash. 

Resume : 

Moisture 60 

Coke and volatile matters 94 . 10 

Ash.. 5.30 



100.00 

75. Coke is tested the same as coal, except- 
ing- that about 30 gr should, be used for the moisture 
test, and it may be dried at a hig-her tempera- 
ture, 140C, and only half a gr is used for the 
ash. 100 per cent., minus the sum -of the water 
and ash, is called the "combustible matter," 
instead of "coke and volatile matters," as 
above. 



76. Fuel OH. The most important and 
most usual test of oil is the determination of its 
specific gravity. This is done with*jBeaume's 
hydrometer for liquids lig-hter than water (Pig*. 
45), the reading- of the hydrometer being- com- Fig. 45. 



n6 



COAL, COKE AND FUEL OIL. 



pared with the corresponding- specific gravity by use 
of the following- table : 

TABLE B. 

Comparison of Degrees on the Beaume Hydrominor Spindle with 
Specific Gravity. 



Degree . 


Sp. G. 


Degree . 


Sp. G. 


Degree. 


Sp. G. 


Degree 


Sp. G. 


10 


1 000 


24 


.913 


38 


.839 


52 


.777 


11 


.993 


25 


.907 


39 


.834 


53 


773 


12 


.986 


26 


.901 


40 


.830 


54 


.768 


13 


.980 


27 


.896 


41 


825 


55 


.764 


14 


973 


28 


.890 


42 


820 


56 


.760 


15 


.967 


29 


.885 


43 


.816 


57 


.757 


16 


.960 


30 


.880 


44 


811 


58 


.753 


17 


.954 


31 


874 


45 


807 


59 


.749 


18 


948 


32 


.869 


46 


.802 


60 


.745 


19 


.942 


33 


.864 


47 


.798 


65 


726 


20 


.936 


34 


.859 


48 


.794 


70 


.709 


21 


.930 


35 


.854 


49 


.789 


80 


.676 


22 


.924 


36 


.849 


50 


.785 


90 


.646 


23 


.918 


37 


.844 


51 


.781 


100 


619 



The above table is calculated for a temperature of 
15C. or 59P., and all observations should be made at 
this temperature. However, a difference of 2 Farenheit 
degrees either way does not introduce an error of con- 
sequence. 

The specific gravity may also be taken with a 
pycnometer, a specific gravity hydrometer, or any of the 
specific gravity balances for liquids. The Beaume 
hydrometer is preferable to other methods in the fact 
that it is g-enerally used in oil commerce. 

Water is so seldom present in oil that it is determined 
only qualitatively. A quantity of oil of known specific 
gravity is poured over fused calcium chloride, which may 
be contained in a basket of wire screen. The specific 
gravity of the treated oil is then taken, and if it is less 



COAL, COKE AND FUEL OIL. 117 

than before, water was present and was taken up by the 
calcium chloride. A simpler method, but one requiring 
more time, is to fill a glass tube (about 3-16 of an inch 
in diameter and 12 inches long) with the oil, having one 
end closed. By standing the tube on the closed end, if 
any water is present it will separate from the oil in a few 
days and go to the bottom. 

Ashes. Evaporate 5 gr of the oil in a porcelain dish 
until it is sufficiently dry for ignition. This may be 
done first on a water bath and then on an asbestos plate 
over a direct flame. Burn carefully until a completely 
incinerated ash is obtained. The weight of the ash re- 
maining divided by 5 and multiplied by 100 will give the 
per cent. 

Example: 

Weight of dish and oil 26 . 370gr 

Weight of dish 21 . 370*r 

Weight of oil used S.OOOgr 

Weight of dish and ash 21.373gr 

Weight of dish , 21 . 370gr 

Weight of ash 003gr 

.003-^5= .0006. .0006x100= .06 per cent. 

Flash and Fire Test. The temperature at which the 
development of inflammable gases begins is called the 
flash point of oil, and the degree of temperature where 
the oil itself will burn is called the fire-point. Both 
may be tested at the same time, as the test for the latter 
is only a continuation of the test for the former. These 
determinations can be made with sufficiently accurate re- 
sults by the simple apparatus mentioned as follows, but 



Il8 COAL, COKE AND FUEL OIL. 

for absolutely exact determinations the Saybolt or some 
other apparatus with electric sparks should be used: 

A porcelain crucible holding" about 90 CC is nearly tilled 
with the oil and placed on the ring- of a lamp-stand, over 
a sheet (4 inches square) of asbestos, about V% of an 
inch thick. A chemical Farenheit thermometer, sup- 
ported by a clamp above, is inserted in the oil so that the 
mercury bulb is just covered. Heat is applied, the flame 
being 1 just large enough to cause a rise of 2 or 3 degrees 
in temperature a minute. At the end of every minute 
after heat is applied a "test-flame" is passed over the 
oil. The "test-flame" should be as small as possible, 
but a match generally has to be used in sugar factory 
laboratories. The temperature degree, when the passing 
of the "test-flame" first causes a flash of light, is re- 
corded as the flash point, and the degree when the oil 
ignites permanently is recorded as the fire point. In 
crude petroleum the latter is from 6 to 15 higher than 
the former. 



CHAPTER XI. 
ANALYSIS OF BONEBLACK*. 

77. The Outward Appearance of boneblack often in- 
dicates its usefulness in sugar manufacture. Well- 
burned boneblack should be of a deep black color and 
show a faint velvety cracking". If it is sufficiently porous 
each broken piece when held to the tongue should pro- 
duce a slight suction. If the boneblack is boiled with 
caustic potash or caustic sodium and then allowed to 
settle, the supernatent fluid should be completely color- 
less; a brown coloring is caused by undestroyed organic 
substance (glue, gristle). 

78. The Analysis of Boneblack generally comprises 
determinations of moisture, calcium carbonate, calcium 
sulphate, calcium sulphide, organic matter and decolo- 
rizing power. The composition of good boneblack is 
about as follows: 

Moisture 7 per cent 

Carbon 7 to 8 " 

Sand and Clay : 2 to 4 

Calcium Phosphate 70 to 75 ' * 

Calcium Carbonate 7 to 8 " 

Calcium Sulphate 2 to. 3 " 

Phosphates of Iron and Aluminum .5 {t 

Magnesium Phosphate 6 to 1 " 

79. Moisture. The boneblack is coarsely powdered 
and 10* r are dried at 120C. It usually takes several 
hours for the sample to become thoroughly dry. The 
weight lost is moisture; divided by 10 and multiplied by 
100 will give the percentage. 

* Adapted from "I^eitfaden fur Zuckerfabrichemiker" by Dr. E. Preuss. 



120 ANALYSIS OF BONEBLACK. 

80. Carbon, Sand and Clay. Into a porcelain dish 
put 10 gr of the finely pulverized sample and add some 
water. Then digest with 50 CC of concentrated hydro- 
chloric acid, the dish being- covered with a glass plate to 
prevent loss by spirting". Filter through a dry filter, the 
weight of which is known, and wash with hot water 
until the acid reaction of the filtrate has disappeared 
(test with litmus paper). The filter and contents are 
dried and weighed, the total, minus the weight of the 
paper, being carbon, sand and clay, the remaining 
constituents of the boneblack having been taken out by 
the digestion with acid. After weighing, incinerate in 
a tared crucible. The residue is sand and clay, and this 
weight subtracted from the weight of the contents of the 
filter paper will give the weight of the carbon. The re- 
results obtained, divided by 10 and multiplied by 100, 
will give the percentage. 

The filtrate from the above, made up to a liter, serves 
in the determination of calcium sulphate, calcium sul- 
phide, oxide of iron and aluminum, lime, magnesia and 
phosphoric acid. 

81. Calcium Sulphate. Measure off 200 CC of the 
above filtrate, corresponding to 2 gr of the original sub- 
stance, and heat to nearly boiling point. Add a slight 
excess of barium chloride, precipitating barium sulphate, 
and filter as in 59. After burning and weighing, the 
resulting weight is divided by 2 to give the weight in 
l gr , and is then multiplied by the factor .5832 to give the 
weight in calcium sulphate. Multiplying by 100 will 
give the per cent. 

In factories and refineries having "boneblack houses" 
the examination of the boneblack as to its contents of 



ANALYSIS OF BONEBLACK. 121 

calcium sulphate and its removal by treatment with soda 
solution is very important. The gypsum strongly in- 
fluences the crystallization of sugar and in the re-burn- 
ing* of the boneblack leads to considerable losses, the 
calcium sulphate being* reduced to calcium sulphide, and 
carbon escapes in the form of carbon monoxide gas. 

CaSO 4 -H 4C = CaS + 4CO. 

The calcium sulphide thus formed has an injurious 
effect, as in contact with metals it produces colored com- 
binations which lessen the value of the product. There- 
fore it is also necessary to determine the calcium sul- 
phide. 

82. Calcium Sulphide. Place 5* r of the finely pow- 
dered sample in a porcelain dish and moisten with water. 
The dish is now put on a water bath and lO** of fuming 
nitric acid gradually added. Heat for half an hour, fre- 
quently stirring-, and then add 10 CC of concentrated hy- 
drochloric acid a few drops at a time. The mixture is 
heated 20 minutes longer and is stirred as before. By 
this means all the sulphur is oxidized and TUCKER pre- 
fers the method to all others. At the end of the heating- 
dilute to about 100 CC by the addition of water and filter. 
Heat the filtrate nearly to boiling and precipitate with 
barium chloride, filter, burn, and weigh in the usual 
manner. The weight of barium sulphate is divided by 5 
to give the weight in l* r and is multiplied by . 1374 and 
100 to give the per cent, of sulphur. The per cent, of 
the calcium sulphate obtained in the above paragraph 
multiplied by .2356 will give the per cent, of sulphur in 
the boneblack which is in combination as gypsum, and 
this subtracted from the total sulphur as just determined 



122 ANALYSIS OF BONEBLACK. 

will give the sulphur in combination as calcium sulphide. 
Multiply the per cent, sulphur by 2.248 to obtain the per 
cent, of calcium sulphide. 

83. Sugar Contents. Powder 50 gr and boil with 
100 CC of water for 20 minutes. Let the mixture settle 
and filter off the clear fluid. Add water to the sediment 
and boil again, filtering' as before, and repeat the opera- 
tion. The sediment is now placed on the filter and 
thoroug-hly washed with boiling water. Evaporate the 
combined filtrates to about 75 or SO CC and rinse into a 
100-110 CC flask. When cool make up to the mark and 
determine the sug-ar volumetrically. The result ob- 
tained is divided by 50 as 50^ r were used. 

84. Calcium Carbonate. During filtration the bone- 
black takes up calcium carbonate from the juices, and 
the pores are gradually closed. This excess is removed 
down to 7 per cent, (not below this, as it would affect the 
calcium phosphate present as a normal constituent) by 
washing- the boneblack with hydrochloric acid, and the 
amount of acid necessary is calculated from the determi- 
nation of calcium carbonate present. In making- this 
estimation, Scheibler's apparatus, shown in Fig-. 46, is 
g-enerally used. The execution of the analysis is as 
follows : 

Put the weighed quantity (1.7 gr ) of finely pulverized 
boneblack into the developing- bottle A; fill the caout- 
chouc cylinder S about half-full with concentrated hy- 
drochloric acid (1.12 sp. g.) and place it carefully, with 
pincers and without spilling, into the bottle A. Fill by 
pressure on the bulb W of Woulff's bottle E (which con- 
tains water), the two communicating tubes DandC, with 
water, until the fluid in C is at zero, the water in D 



OF THK 

UNIVERSITY 




Fig. 46. 



2 




ANALYSIS OF BONEBLACK. 125 

being 1 on the same level. The pinch-cock q is opened 
during the filling, to allow air to escape. Care must be 
taken not to overflow any of the water into B. for the 
apparatus would have to be taken apart and dried. 

Now place the glass stopper, fastened to the rubber 
tube r upon the developing* vessel A (greasing* the joint 
with tallow), and close the pinch-cock q. Hold the 
bottle A at the upper end with two fingers, to avoid 
warming it, and incline it so that the hydrochloric acid 
is poured over the substance. The carbonic acid devel- 
oped rises through r into the rubber bulb K and crowds 
out an equivalent amount of air in B which, in turn, re- 
duces the water in C- The pinch-cock p is opened, 
whenever necessary, to make the level of the fluid in C 
and D equal. A is shaken to generate the lost gas and 
when no further development occurs, the volume of 
water in- C is read and the temperature observed. From 
these the percentage of calcium carbonate is determined 
by the accompanying Table C. 

Example : 

The volume of gas generated is 11.2 (see n m Fig. 
45) at a temperature of 21. By referring to the table 
we find that 11 volumes at 21 is 10.74 and 2 volumes is 
1.80. Dividing the latter by 10 gives .18 for the .2 of a 
volume. Therefore, the per cent, of CaCO is 

10.74 + .18 = 10.92 per cent. 

As boneblack often contains caustic lime it is advisa- 
ble, before making the analysis as above, to dampen the 
sample with ammonium carbonate and evaporate to dry- 
ness. An error is introduced when calcium sulphide is 
present as sulphuretted hydrogen is developed as well as 
carbonic acid. TUCKER avoids this error by adding a 



00 M O iO M r-t 



~ 

ON 



I 

Sj 

UJ I 

-J *o 



OJ 



I 

a 




ANALYSIS OF BONEBLACK. I 27 

small amount of copper chloride to the hydrochloric acid 
used. 

Considering- 7 per cent, as the normal amount of cal- 
cium carbonate, the quantity of acid of any strength 
necessary to remove the excess may be calculated by the 
use of Scheibler's Table D. 

Example : 

The calcium carbonate obtained in the above sample 
is 10.92, an excess of 3. 92 "over the normal 7 per cent. 
The amount of acid, say 1.175 sp. g. or 21.5 Beaume, 
necessary to reduce this excess is determined by referring 
to the table as follows: 

3. parts of calcium carbonate = 6.3112 parts of acid. 

0.9 " " =1.8934 

0.02 " " " = .0409 " 

3.92 parts of calcium carbonate = 8.2455 parts of acid. 

In a ton of 2,000 Ibs. of boneblack having the above 
percentage of CaCO 3 would take 

2,000 x 8 2455 per cent. = 164.91 Ibs. 
of acid of 1.175 sp. g. to remove the excess. 

85. Decolorizing Power. Equal amounts of a mo- 
lasses solution are treated, during the same length of 
time, with equal parts of a new efficacious char and the 
boneblack to be analyzed. From the difference of color 
of the two filtered solutions the efficacy of the boneblack 
can be approximately determined. Stammer's color in- 
strument should be used where frequent analyses of 
boneblack are made. 



CHAPTER XII. 
ANALYSIS OF CHIMNEY GASES. 

86. Smoke Gases consist largely of carbonic acid, 
oxygen, nitrogen and carbon monoxide gas; marsh gas, 
sulphuric acid, etc., are found only in small quantities. 

The analysis is most easily made by use of an appa- 
ratus which removes each constituent by absorption, the 
percentage of each being determined by the diminution 
of volume of the sample used. The apparatus most 
commonly used is Orsat's, or a modification of it. 

87. Preparation of Reagents. Concentrated solu- 
tions of caustic potash, pyrogallic acid and copper 
chloride are used for the absorption of the most impor- 
tant gases carbonic acid, oxygen and carbon monoxide. 
The caustic potash solution is made by diluting 1 
part of potassium hydrate with 2 parts of water. An 
alkaline solution of pyrogallic acid is made by mixing 1 
volume of a 25 per cent, solution of pyrogallic acid with 
a 60 per cent, solution of potassium hydrate. The solu- 
tion for absorbing carbonic oxide is made by shaking a 
mixture of equal parts of a saturated ammonium chlo- 
ride solution and ammonia with copper shavings, until 
the fluid has turned dark blue. 

88. Orsat's Apparatus (Fig. 47) consists of a gas 
measuring-tube A which, in the lower narrow portion, 
has a scale divided into half -cubic centimeters from to 
40, and is surrounded by a glass jacket filled with water, 
to avoid deviations of temperature. The lower end of 
the gas burette A is connected with the aspirator bot- 
tle E by a rubber tube. By raising and lowering this 



ANALYSIS OF CHIMNEY GASES. 



bottle, containing- water, the gas burette can be filled 
with water and emptied, thereby drawing- the g-as mix- 
ture to A, or pressing- the g-as therein contained into the 
upper conduit pipe. The upper portion of A leads into 
a giass tube at rig-ht ang-les to it, which has three rests 
furnished with the cocks a, b, c; these cocks make corn- 




Fig. 47 

munication possible with the absorption vessels B, C, D, 
each of which is ag-ain connected with a reservoir of like 
shape (B', C, D'.) 

The absorption vessels are filled with many narrow 
tubes of glass, in order to give the absorption liquids as 
larg-e a surface as possible. (In the diagram only a few 
are denoted to give clearness.) The horizontal tube 
previously mentioned has at its end a tube bent like a U 



130 ANALYSIS OF CHIMNEY GASES. 

(e), the shanks of which are filled with cotton for the 
filtration of the smoke gases entering- through f, while 
in the curve of the same there is a layer of water. Be- 
tween the curve of the horizontal tube and the cock c 
there is a Winkler's three-way-cock, by which the tube, 
and thereby the entire apparatus, can be connected with 
the tube f, leading- to the gas line, as well as with the 
air-injector i. The injector is for the purpose of pump- 
ing- out the air in the tube f before using the apparatus, 
being done by blowing into the mouthpiece g. 

89. Execution of the Test. First, the absorption 
liquids from the reservoirs in the rear must be brought 
to B, C, D, which is done as follows: Close the cocks 
a, b, c; fill the burette A with water by placing the 
three-way-cock into such a position that A communicates 
with the outer air. Lift the bottle C and close the cock 
d against the atmosphere; then lower the bottle E again, 
open cock a, whereby the water flows from the burette to 
E and an air-diluted space is formed in B. The air- 
pressure then forces the absorption liquid from the res- 
ervoir to B, and a must be closed at the moment when 
the fluid reaches exactly to the mark. In the same manner 
the vessels C and D are filled. By means of the injector 
i the air must be pumped out of the tubes, which is done 
in the manner above mentioned. Now, the tube e must 
be connected by f with the gas-line and the three-way- 
cock must be placed in such a position that the filled 
burette A is connected with the atmosphere and the gas- 
line. By raising and lowering the bottle E repeatedly, 
the burette A and the tubes are rinsed with smoke-gas 
until the operator is sure that the air is completely 
crowded out. 



ANALYSIS OF CHIMNEY GASES. 131 

After the water in A is set in again to the mark, the 
three-way-cock is turned so that A as well as the g-as- 
line is closed ag-ainst the atmosphere and the smoke-g-as 
line communicates only with the burette A. By opening- 
the pinch-cock in front of E and lowering- the aspirator 
bottle, the burette is filled with the g-as to be analyzed to 
a little below the mark (100 ccm ). Whereupon the same 
is closed ag-ainst the atmosphere and the g-as-line. Now 
set in the fluid exactly to the zero point and allow the 
excess of pressure to escape into the atmosphere by 
opening- once quickly D. The cock a is opened, and by 
raising the bottle E, the g-as is pressed into B, which 
contains caustic potash. Repeat this operation several 
times and finally hold E at such a heig-ht that the level 
of the water is equal to the mark on B. Cock a is then 
closed and the heig-ht of the liquid in A is read off. 
Difference to 100 will give the percentag-e of carbonic 
acid in the g-as. In the remainder of the g-as mixture, 
determine as above, one after another, the contents of 
free oxyg-en and carbon oxide g"as. The g-as volume 
which remains is calculated as nitrog-en. 

The absorption liquids can be saved from spoiling- by 
pouring- some solar oil into the rear reservoirs, thus ex- 
cluding- the atmospheric air. If thus protected, the 
fluids will suffice for several hundred analyses. 

9O. Franke's Gas Burette (Fig-. 48} may also be 
used for smoke-g-as analysis. It has an advantag-e over 
the Orsat's apparatus, in being- more simple in con- 
struction. 

The burette consists of the measuring- space M, the 
lower cylindric part of which is graduated into whole 
and half cubic centimeters, and the space R serving- for 



132 



ANALYSIS OF CHIMNEY GASES. 



holding- the absorption liquids. The connection be- 
tween the two can be produced by the glass-cock r, which 
has a wide double boring-. The measuring- space M, be- 
tween the two cocks m and r, holds ex- 
actly lOO 00 " 1 . Into a socket at the 
lower end of the space R the glass 
cock a can be placed to close it air- 
tight. 

91. The Execution of the Analysis 
with Franke's burette is accomplished 
in the following- manner : Fill the bu- 
rette completely with water (space M 
and R), connect the point b with the 
g-as-line and let so much of the g-as 
enter that the space R is about half- 
filled. Then close the cocks m and r 
and remove the water in R, so as to 
fill R completely with the absorption 
liquid. 

In order to exclude the air com- 
pletely, pour into R so much of the 
reag-ent that even the funnel-shaped 
widening- is partly filled with it. Now 
" m place the opened cock a carefully into 
the socket, so that from the bor- 
ing- as well as from the point below 
the cock the air is completely excluded. 
The excess of the absorption liquid 
accumulated in the widening- is poured 
Fig. 48. back into the storing--bottle after cock 

a is closed. 

In order to put the g-as-volume in the measuring- 
space under atmospheric pressure, raise for a moment the 



ANALYSIS OF CHIMNEY GASES. 133 

cock m. The absorption of the constituent to be deter- 
mined in the gas mixture is accomplished easily by open- 
ing- the cock r, so that the reagent enters into the 
opening- space. By shaking the burette, this operation 
can be hastened. After this is done, place the burette 
on the point a and wait until the absorption liquid has 
completely returned into R from the measuring space. 
The space R must then be filled again completely to the 
boring of the cock r. Now take out the cock a, pour out 
the reagent, and replace the same with water, with the 
precaution that now, even in the point, no air remains. 
The whole burette is now turned with the point a down- 
ward, placed into a high cylinder filled with water, and 
below water the cocks a and r are opened. On account 
of the air-diluted space, produced by the absorption, the 
water will now rise to a certain height into the measur- 
ing space. The reading off of the percentage contents 
is done after an equal level of water is produced inside 
and outside. In order to determine the constituents yet 
left in the remainder of the gas-mixture, remove the 
water in the measuring space by means of a suction 
bottle before the reagent is put in ; especially must this 
be done by the determining of carbonic oxide gas. The 
burette with the water must be shaken several times be- 
fore reading off the height, in order to let the remains of 
ammonia, which always evaporate, be absorbed by the 
water. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

ANALYSIS OF FERTILIZERS.* 

92. Artificial Fertilizers for beet fields generally con- 
tain principally either nitrogen, phosphoric acid or pot- 
ash, although some fertilizers contain two of the 
constituents and others all three. In analysis, it is 
usual to make only the determination of the constituents 
upon which the value of the fertilizer depends. For ex- 
ample, in nitrate of soda, a very common fertilizer, it is 
necessary to estimate only the nitrogen, and in super- 
phosphates, the soluble form of phosphoric acid is de- 
termined. The methods outlined in the following para- 
graphs may be used in the analysis of all fertilizers. 

The refuse lime from sugar factories is of great 
value as a fertilizer, as it returns the calcium and mag- 
nesium which is taken from the soil. As it is often of 
interest to know the other elements present in the refuse, 
a full method of analysis is given in the next chapter. 

93. The Sample is prepared by mixing it thoroughly, 
after which it is ground in a mortar fine enough to pass 
through a 25-mesh sieve. The operations should be 
performed rapidly, to prevent loss or gain of moisture. 

94. Moisture determinations should be made in all 
fertilizer analysis. Weigh out 2 gr and dry at 100. For 
potash salts, sodium nitrate and ammonium sulphate 
fertilizers, the sample may be dried at 130. The drying 
usually takes from 3 to 5 hours. Determine the per 
cent, moisture in the usual way. 

* The preparation of the reagents used in these analysis will be found in 
Part III. The preparation of all but baryta solution is given according to the 
methods adapted by the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists. See Bul- 
letin No. 76, U. S. Department of Agticulture, Division of Chemistry. Para- 
graph 94 is in pat t (a and b) adapted from this report, also Paragraph 96. 



ANALYSIS OF FERTILIZERS. 135 

95. Phosphoric Acid is in two forms, soluble and in- 
soluble, the soluble being- the form of value as a fertil- 
izer. In contact with certain basic hydroxides and 
water some of the soluble acid will become insoluble 
and is said to be "reverted." A determination of the 
reverted acid is usually unnecessary. In analysis of 
phosphoric acid, calculation is based on the formula of 
the anhydride P 2 O 5 . 

O) The Total Phosphoric Acid is estimated as fol- 
lows : The 2 gr dried as above are ignited in a crucible to 
burn away organic matter, and are then dissolved in hy- 
drochloric acid. After solution, transfer to a 200 CC flask, 
cool, make up to the mark, shake well and pass through 
a dry filter into a beaker or flask. Measure off half of 
the solution, corresponding to l gr of the sample, and 
neutralize with ammonia. If the solution is not clear, 
add a few drops of nitric acid. The addition of about 
10 gr of dry ammonium nitrate will assist the precipita- 
tion which follows. Heat to 65C and add molybdic 
solution. About 5 CC of the reagent must be used for 
every milligramme of P 2 O 5 present in the solution tested. 
Stir and keep covered 1 hour at 65C. Filter and wash 
the precipitate with a solution containing 15 gr of ammo- 
nium nitrate in 100 CC of water, to which about 3 to 5 CC of 
molybdic solution has been added, and the whole 
slightly acidified with nitric acid. Test the filtrate for 
phosphoric acid by additional molybdic solution. The 
precipitate on the filter is now dissolved with ammonia 
and the filter washed with a hot mixture of 3 parts of 
water and 1 part of ammonia. Nearly neutralize with 
hydrochloric acid, cool, *and add magnesia mixture 
slowly, preferably with a burette, while stirring con- 



136 ANALYSIS OF FERTILIZERS. 

stantly. About 10 CC of the mixture is necessary for 
every milligramme of P 2 O in the solution tested. After 
a few minutes add about 30 CC of ammonia and let stand 
for twelve hours. Filter, wash with a 5 per cent, ammo- 
nia solution, dry and ignite to whiteness, or to a grayish 
white. Cool and weig-h, the weight being multiplied by 
.6396 to give the weig-h t phosphoric acid (P 2 O 5 ). Divid- 
ing- this by 100 will give the per cent. 

W Soluble Phosphoric Acid. -Place 2 gr of the 
sample upon a filter and wash with water into a 200 CC 
flask. Use successive small portions of water, allowing 
each portion to pass throug-h before adding more. When 
the flask is filled to the mark, measure off 100 CC and test 
as under the above paragraph. 

(0 Insoluble Phosphoric Acid may be determined by 
difference, subtracting the soluble acid from the total. 
This will also include any reverted acid which may be 
present, but the error may be overlooked. 

96. Nitrogen is determined according- to GUNNING'S 
method, which does not include the nitrogen of nitrates 
(97). Weig-h out 3.0 r of the sample and transfer to a 
500 CC Kjeldahl digestion flask*. In a sample containing- 
much nitrog-en, a less amount of the substance may be 
used for analysis. Add to the flask 10 gr of pulverized 
potassium sulphate and about 20 CC of pure sulphuric 
acid (free from nitrates) with a sp. g. of 1.84. Fix the 
flask in an inclined position and heat gradually, until all 
frothing- ceases; then boil until the liquid is colorless, or 
nearly so. Cool and wash into a distillation flask of 
about 550 CC capacity, with about 200 CC of water. Add a 

* Kjeldahl flasks are pear-shaped and round-bottomed, with a long, tapering 
neck. They should be made of Jena or of the best Bohemian glass. 



ANALYSIS OF FERTILIZERS. 



137 



few drops of phenol and then a saturated solution of 
sodium hydroxide until the reaction is strongly alkaline. 
The flask is now fitted with a rubber stopper and a bulb 
tube, as in Fig-. 49 (A and a), the latter being- con- 
nected with the condenser B by a rubber tube. Another 
bulb tube b is attached to the condensor at d and ex- 




Fig. 49. 

tends to nearly the bottom of the Erlenmeyer flask C, 
which contains 20 CC of a normal acid. Half normal acid 
may be used or, if only a small amount of nitrog-en is 
present in the sample, tenth-normal is to be recom- 
mended. Heat is now applied, and the nitrog-en present 
in A is distilled as ammonia, and passes over and is 
absorbed in C- The operation is completed when 150 CC 
of the distillate has been collected. The time required 
is from three-quarters of an hour to an hour and a half 



138 ANALYSIS OF FERTILIZERS. 

The contents of C are now cooled and titrated with 
caustic baryta water solution*. This solution must be of 
a known streng-th, which is determined by finding- how 
many cc of it are necessary to neutralize a certain 
amount of normal acid. Tincture of litmus is used as 
an indicator and the baryta solution is added from a 
burette until the color just turns red. The quantity of 
the solution used is measured, and from this the amount 
of nitrog-en is calculated as shown in the following- 

Example /f 

It takes 50.1 CC of baryta solution to neutralize the 
20 CC of normal acid, used with the distillate, from l gr of 
a sample. The baryta solution is of such streng-th that 
20 CC of normal acid requires 99.9 CC of the solution for 
neutralization. As one liter of normal acid corresponds 
to 14.01 gr of nitrog-en, 20 CC corresponds to 0.2802 gr . 
Therefore, 99.9 CC of baryta solution corresponds to 
0.2802 gr of nitrog-en and l cc corresponds to 0.002799 gr . 

Now, as 50.1 CC of the baryta solution are used, the 
nitrog-en denoted is 

50.1 x 0.002799 = 0.140238'. 

As 20cc of Normal Acid = 0.28020gr Nitrogen 
and SO. lcc Caustic Baryta = 0.14023gr < 

There remain 13997gr 

Which is, in round numbers, 14 per cent, of the l gr used. 

97. Total /Nitrogen, including- the nitrog-en of 
nitrates, is determined as follows : To the substance in 
the dig-estion flask, as in 96, add 30 CC of a salicylic acid 

* Any standard alkali solution may be used instead. The Association of 
Official Agricultural Chemists recommend ammonia, a one-tenth solution, hav- 
ing 1.7051 gr. of ammonia to the liter. 

t Fruhling and Schulz. 



ANALYSIS OF FERTILIZERS. 139 

mixture, which is prepared by mixing- 30 CC of concen- 
trated sulphuric acid with l gr of commercial salicylic 
acid. The mixing" requires about 10 minutes. Then add 
5 r of sodium hyposulphite and 10 r of potassium sul- 
phate. Heat and then distill and determine the nitrogen, 
as in 96. 

98. Potash. Boil* 10* r of the sample with from 
250 CC to 300 CC of water for half an hour. Make the hot 
solution alkaline by the addition of ammonia and pre- 
cipitate the calcium present with ammonium oxalate. 
Cool, dilute to 500 CC and filter through a dry filter. In 
the analysis of muriate of potash, the mixture is diluted 
without the addition of ammonia and the precipitation 
of calcium. Heat 50 CC of the filtrate, corresponding-^ to 
l gr of the sample, to boiling- point and add, a drop at a 
time, and with constant stirring, sufficient barium chlo- 
ride to precipitate the sulphuric acid present. Without 
filtering, add in the same manner baryta water in slig-ht 
excess. Filter while hot and wash well. Heat the 
filtrate nearly to boiling and precipitate the barium by 
the addition of ammonium carbonate, previously adding- 
a few drops of ammonia. Filter and wash thoroug-hly. 
Evaporate the filtrate to dryness and burn carefully over 
a low flame until all ammonium salts have been expelled. 
Dissolve the residue in hot water and filter. Acidify the 
Ultrate with a few drops of hydrochloric acid, in a porce- 
lain dish. Add an excess of a concentrated solution of 
platinic chloride (from 5 to 10 CC ) and evaporate nearly to 
dryness, keeping the matter in the water-bath below 
boiling- point. Add 80 per cent, alcohol (sp.g-. 0.8645) to 

* Fertilizers which contain much organic matter, the 10 gr. are ignited at a 
gentle heat, with the addition of enough concentrated sulphuric acid to saturate 
the sample, before being boiled with water. 



140 ANALYSIS OF FERTILIZERS. 

the dish and let stand for some time ; then filter off the 
alcoholic solution. Repeat this operation until the resi- 
due in the dish consists of small reddish-yellow octa- 
hedra, which is the appearance of potassium platinic 
chloride. Bring- this residue upon the filter and wash 
with alcohol. Dry the filter and contents until the alco- 
hol has volatalized, and then carefully transfer the con- 
tents to* a watch glass. The small amount of the 
precipitate which cannot be removed is washed out with 
hot water. The filtrate is evaporated to dryness in a 
weighed porcelain dish, the contents of the watch glass 
being 1 also added. Dry for 30 minutes at 100, cool, and 
weig-h. The weig-ht, less the weig^ht of the dish, is po- 
tassium platinic chloride. Multiplying- by .1931 will 
g-ive the weig-ht of potassium oxide (K 2 O), and as ls r 
was used for the analysis, the percentag-e is obtained by 
multiplying- by 100. 



CHAPTER XIV. 
ANALYSIS OF REFUSE LIME. 

99. Refuse Lime* analysis consists of determina- 
tions of water, sugar, organic matter, silica, iron and 
aluminum oxides, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, 
caustic lime, phosphoric acid, sulphuric acid and carbonic 
acid. 

100. The Sample is a carefully selected average, 
small samples being taken from several places and 
mixed together. As the substance usually contains too 
much moisture to handle easily, about 20 gr are dried, 
powdered as in 93, and preserved in an air-tight jar. 
The determinations are made with the dry substance, 
and, by taking" into account the per cent, of water 
found in the moisture determination, are figured into the 
original substance (see 11O). 

101. Water is determined by weighing out 2 gr and 
drying at 100. The weight lost, divided by 2 and mul- 
tiplied by 100 will give the per cent, of water. 

102. Sugar. Of the original substance, take 100 gr 
and treat as described in 83, determining the per cent, 
sugar volumetrically. 

103. Organic Matter. Burn 2}^ gr of the dry sub- 
stance over a low flame, heating not quite to redness. 
Cool and weigh. The loss is put down as organic 
matter. The per cent, of dry substance is found by 
dividing by 2.5 and multiplying by 100. 

* Refuse lime, as referred to here, includes not only the filter press cakes but 
any other refuse from the factory which is disposed of in the same pile or reser- 
voir with the filler press cakes. 



142 ANALYSIS OF REFUSK 

104. Silica* After burning- away the organic 
matter from 2/^ gr , as in the above paragraph, the re- 
mainder is dissolved in hydrochloric acid, with the 
addition of heat, and is filtered into a 250 CC flask. The 
substance remaining- on the filter is washed, dried, 
weighed, and percentage on dry substance figured as in 
67. This is usually recorded as silica, but might be 
more properly written "Insoluble in Hydrochloric Acid," 
as other substances are often in excess of silica. 

105. Iron, Aluminum, Calcium and Magnesium oxides 
are determined from the filtrate in the above paragraph 
as described in 68, 69 and 7O, the percentage being- 
found on dry substance. 

106. Caustic Lime is found by titrating l gr with a 
normal acid, as described in 35a. The CaO found by 
this method is that which is uncombined, not being in 
the form of a salt. Either the dry or the original sub- 
stance may be taken for this determination. 

107. Phosphoric Acid is estimated by taking 2 gr of 
the dry substance and proceeding as described in 95a. 

108. Sulphuric Acid. From the 250 CC filtrate of 
1O4 take 50 CC and determine the sulphuric acid (SO 3 ) as 
in 71. 

109. Carbonic Acid is determined by means of the 
alkalimeter described in 54, 2 gr of the dry substance 
being taken. The weight lost, divided by 2 and multi- 
plied by 100, will give the per cent. 

11 0. The Percentages which are figured on dry 
substance are calculated to the original substance by 
multiplying the percentage found by the part which the 



ANALYSIS OF REFUSE LIME. 143 

dry substance is to the original substance. For example, 
if the water is 43 per cent. , the dry substance is 100 43 
or 57 per cent., and if the percentage of phosphoric acid 
to the dry substance is 1.58, then 1.58x.57 is equal to 
the percentage of phosphoric acid to the original sub- 
stance, or .909. 

111. The Figured Analysis. Water, sugar, organic 
matter, silica, iron and aluminum oxides and caustic lime 
are recorded as found. From the calcium oxide found 
by precipitation with ammonium oxalate, the caustic 
lime is subtracted to give the calcium oxide in combina- 
tion with acids. Phosphoric acid and sulphuric acid are 
combined with calcium oxide, and carbonic acid is com- 
bined with the remainder of the calcium oxide and with 
the magnesium oxide. The combining is effected, as 
usual, with factors. For example, let the following rep- 
resent the actual analysis of a sample of refuse lime : 

Water ...................................................... 43.00 

Organic Matter ............................................ 6 . 79 

Sugar ..................................................... 1 . 14 

Silica ...................................................... 5 . 28 

Iron and Aluminum Oxides .................................. 75 

Caustic Lime (CaO) ..................... ". .................. 4.05 

Total Calcium Oxide ........................................ 25 . 75 

Carbonic Acid (CO 2 ) ....................................... 16.55 

Phosphoric Acid (P 2 O 5 ) ...................................... 90 

Sulphuric Acid (SO 3 ) ....................................... 28 

Magnesium Oxide ........................................... 47 

The acids phosphoric, sulphuric and carbonic are first 
combined with calcium oxide: 

.90 (P 2 O 5 ) x 2. 1827 = 1.96, percent, calcium phosphate. 
.28 (SO 3 ) x 1.6996 = .48, per cent, calcium sulphate. 

For CaP 2 O 8 1.06 per cent. CaO is used, for CaSO 4 
0.20 per cent, and the caustic lime is 4.05 per cent. The 



OF THH 



144 ANALYSIS OF REFUSE LIME. 

total calcium oxide is 25.75, hence the amount to be com- 
bined with carbonic acid is 

25.75 (1.06 + .20 + 4 05 =5.31) or 20.44 percent. 
20.44 x 1 7856 = 36 50, per cent, calcium carbonate. 

The amount of carbonic acid used is 16.06, leaving 
0.52 per cent, for combination with magnesium oxide. 
0.52 x 1.9091 = .99, per cent, magnesium carbonate. 

This is exactly sufficient to combine with all the mag- 
nesium, for 

0.47 (MgO) x 2 1 = .99, per cent, magnesium carbonate. 

Resume : 

Water 42 . 00 

Organic Matter 6.79 

Sugar 1.14 

Silica 5 28 

Iron and Aluminum Oxides . 75 

Caustic Lime (CaO) 4 . 05 

Calcium Phosphate 1 .96 

Calcium Sulphate 1 . . , . 48 

Calcium Carbonate 36.50 

Magnesium Carbonate . 99 

Undetermined . 06 

100.00 



CHAPTER XV. 
ANALYSIS OF SYRUP OR MASSECUITE ASH. 

112. The Sample. A sufficient amount of the sub- 
stance should be taken to yield from 1.5 to 2 gr of ash. 
The amount necessary may be determined by incinera- 
tion with sulphuric acid as in 34b- The portion taken 
is concentrated as much as possible by evaporation, and 
is then charred at a moderate heat until no more gases 
escape. The charcoal is then powdered and digested 
with hot water. The solution, but none of the charcoal, 
being- filtered into a porcelain dish. This is done re- 
peatedly until all the soluble matter is extracted. The 
sediment is then burned completely to ashes, cooled, 
treated with a solution of ammonium carbonate and 
burned again, moderately, until all ammonia is driven 
off. It is now united with the filtrate containing the 
soluble matter. This is evaporated to dryness in a 
weighed platinum dish, heated moderately, cooled and 
weighed, the weight in excess of the dish being the total 
ashes. This weight divided by the weight of the origi- 
nal substance taken and multiplied by 100, will give the 
per cent. In the determinations which follow the per 
cent, is figured both on the ash and on the original sub- 
stance. The former is obtained according to 119, and 
the latter is determined by multiplying whatever the 
per cent, of the constituent is to the ash by the per cent, 
which the ash is to the original substance. For example, 
if one of the constituents of the ash is 12 per cent, of the 
ash and the ash is 10 per cent, of the original substance, 
the per cent, of the constituent to the original substance 
is found by multiplying .12 by .10, which gives .0120 or 
1.2 per cent. 



146 ANALYSIS OF SYRUP OR MASSECUITE ASH. 

113. Carbonic Acid. All the ashes obtained as 
above are transferred to an alkalimeter and carbonic acid 
determined as in 



114. Silica Magnesium Oxide. The contents of the 
alkalimeter are filtered into a 250 CC flask, the sediment on 
the filter paper being" silica, and 50 CC of the contents of 
the flask, after being* made up to the mark, are used for 
the determination of iron and aluminum, calcium and 
magnesium oxides, the estimation of each being" the 
same as in limestone analysis (see 119 for calculation 
of weig-hings). 

115. Sulphuric Acid is also determined as in lime- 
stone analysis by using 50 CC of the filtrate as above. 

116. Sodium and Potassium Oxides. The total al- 
kali chlorides are determined as in 6O, 50 CC of the 250 cC 
filtrate being used. The residue remaining- after this 
determination is then treated with platinic chloride and 
the potassium oxide found as described in 98. The 
sodium oxide is estimated by difference. 

117. Phosphoric Acid. Another 50 CC portion of the 
filtrate above is used for the phosphoric acid determina- 
tion, which is made according to 94a. 

118. Chlorine. A new and smaller portion of the 
substance to be analyzed is taken for this determination. 
It is charred at a moderate heat, and the sediment which 
remains is moistened and pulverized, then being rinsed 
into a 250 CC flask and boiled a short time with water. 
After cooling-, without further consideration of the sus- 
pended coal particles, make up to the mark with water, 
shake well, and filter through a dry filter. Half the 
filtrate is used for the chlorine estimation, which is 



ANALYSIS OF SYRUP OR MASSECUITE ASH. 147 

made by precipitation with silver nitrate, as in 5 1 . On 
account of the strong- alkaline condition of the ash 
extract, it should be neutralized by the addition of nitric 
acid. 

119. Calculation of Weighings. In analyses where a 
certain number of grammes are made up to a certain 
number of cubic centimeters, an aliquot portion repre- 
sents either a gramme or such a fraction of a gramme, 
that the calculation of weig'hing's can be made by a 
simple multiplication. But in ash analysis the whole 
ash is made up to 250 CC , no matter what its weig"ht ma} T 
be, for if a certain definite portion were weig-hed off it 
mig-ht not be an accurate averag-e of the whole. Conse- 
quently, each weight must be fig-ured upon the whole 
weig-ht of the ash used. The weig-hts of silica and car- 
bonic acid are each divided by the weig-ht of the sub- 
stance used, and multiplied by 100 to give the per cent. 
For example, if 1.83 gr of ash are used and the carbonic 
acid lost weig-hs .020& r , the per cent, of carbonic acid is 

.020 H 1 83 x 100 = 1.09. 

In determinations made from 50 CC of the 250 CC filtrate, 
each weig-ht is multiplied by 5 to make it correspond to 
the original substance, and is then divided by the weig-ht 
of the ash and multiplied by 100 to give the per cent. 
For example, the weig-ht of calcium carbonate is .0096 gr 
which is multiplied by the factor .56, to give the weig-ht 
of calcium oxide; .0096 x .56 = .0054 r . This is multi- 
plied by 5 to give the weig-ht in 250 CC , or in the whole 
original substance; .0054 x 5 = .027* r . Taking- 1.83, as 
above, for the weig-ht of ash used, the per cent, of 
calcium oxide is 

.027 1 83 x 100 = 1 . 48. 



148 ANALYSIS OF SYRUP OR MASSECUITK ASH. 

The weight of chlorine is multiplied by 2, divided by 
the weight of the ash used and multiplied by 100 to give 
the per cent. 

1 2O. The Figured Analysis. As the combination of 
acids and bases is almost always the same, the figured 
analysis will be illustrated by an example. Let it be 
considered that the following is the result of the actual 
analysis of a molasses ash, only the percentages relative 
to the ash being given : 

Carbonic Acid (CO 2 ) 21 . 00 

Silica (Si0 2 ) 0.21 

Iron and Aluminum Oxides . 93 

Calcium Oxide 1 . 48 

Magnesium Oxide . 26 

Sulphuric Acid (SO 3 ) 5.32 

Sodium Oxide 6.90 

Potassium Oxide 50.88 

Phosphoric Acid (P 2 O 5 ) 0.50 

Chlorine 11.00 

(/) The first operation is to combine all the chlo- 
rine and phosphoric acid with potassium oxide. These 
and all other combinations are effected by the use of 
factors. 

110 (Cl) x 2.1035 =23.14, per cent, potassium chloride. 
5 (P 2 O 5 )x2 9903 = 1.50, per cent, potassium phosphate. 

12.14 per cent, of potassium oxide is used in forming 
the chloride and 1 per cent, in forming the phosphat^, 
making a total of 13.14 per cent., and leaving 37.74 per 
cent. (50.88 13.14) for other combinations. 

( 2 ) All sodium oxide is combined with carbonic 
acid. 

.69 (Na 2 O) x 1.7067 = 11.78, per cent, sodium carbonate. 
4.88 per cent, carbonic acid is used. 



ANALYSIS OF SYRUP OR MASSECUITE ASH. 149 

( j ) The mag-nesium oxide is combined equally with 
sulphuric acid and carbonic acid. 

13 (half MgO) x 3.0015 = 0.39, per cent, magnesium sulphate. 
0.13 (half MgO) x 2.1 = 0.27, per cent, magnesium carbonate. 
26 per cent, sulphuric acid and 0.14 per cent, carbonic acid are 
used. 

(4) The calcium oxide is combined equally with sul- 
phuric acid and carbonic acid. 

0.74 (half CaO) x 2.4294 = 1.80, per cent, calcium sulphate. 
0.74 (half CaO) xl 7856 = 1.32, per cent, calcium carbonate. 
1.04 per cent, sulphuric acid and 0.58 per cent, carbonic acid 
are used. 

(5 ) The potassium oxide remaining- in (1) is com- 
bined with the remaining- sulphuric and carbonic acids. 

The sulphuric acid used in (3) and (4) amounts to 
(0.26 + 1.04) 1.30 per cent., leaving- 4.02 (5.32-1.30) for 
combination with potassium oxide. 

4.02 x 2.1773 = 8 75, per cent potassium sulphate. 

The potassium oxide used is 4.73 per cent., leaving- 
33.01 (37.74-4.73) for combination with carbonic acid. 

The carbonic acid used in (2), (3) and (4) amounts to 
5.60 per cent. (4.88 4- 0.14 -h 0.58), leaving- 15.40 per cent. 
(21.0-5.60) for combination with potassium oxide. 

33.01 (remaining K 2 O) x 1.4668 = 48.41, per cent, potassium 
carbonate. 

The carbonic acid used in this combination is 15.40, 
exactly the amount remaining-. In analyses where, com- 
binations do not come out correctly, the constituent in 
excess is set down as described in 72. 

The above fig-ures are each multiplied by the per cent, 
the ash is to the original substance to give the respective 
per cent, of each constituent to the original substance. 



150 



ANALYSIS OF SYRUP OR MASSECUITE ASH. 



If, for example, the ash is 11 per cent, of the molasses 
used, the whole analysis may be recorded as follows : 





Per Cent, of 

Ash. 


Per Cent, of 

Molasses. 


Silica 


0.21 


.023 


Iron and Aluminum Oxides 


093 


.102 


Calcium Carbonate 


1.32 


.145 


Calcium Sulphate 


1 80 


.198 


Magnesium Carbonate 


0.27 


.029 


Magnesium Sulphate . . 


039 


.042 


Sodium Carbonate 


11 78 


1.296 


Potassium Chloride 


23.14 


2545 


Potassium Phosphate 


1.50 


.165 


Potassium Sulphate 


8.75 


.962 


Potassium Carbonate 


48 71 


5.358 


Undetermined 


1.30 


.143 










10000 


11.008 



CHAPTER XVI. 
MISCELLANEOUS ANALYSES. 

121. Beet Seed. The value of beet seed is determ- 
ined by the test for per cent, moisture, the test of non- 
seed and the germination test. If a number of sacks of 
the same seed are to be tested, take a small sample from 
each one, inserting- a sampler into the sack. Make one 
large sample from the smaller ones and mix very thor- 
oughly. The moisture is found by weighing out 10 or 
20 gr and drying- at 95C, until there is no further loss of 
water. The weight lost divided by the weig-ht used will 
give the per cent, moisture. 

Weig-h 10 gr of the average sample and shake in a 
sieve freeing the seeds from all dust. Discard any foreign 
matter that is not seed, such as dried leaves and the 
blossoms which come from the top of the seed stem. 
The latter look like small dead seeds. Weigh the sample 
again, and the weight lost by the above operations 
divided by 10 (the weight used) will give the per cent, 
of non-seed. 

From the pure seed obtained by the non-seed test 
weigh out 2 g r for the germination test and count the 
number of seeds in this weighing. Plant these seeds an 
inch apart, in squares, a half inch deep in very light 
soil, mostly sand. For this purpose use a box (Fig. 50) 
about ten inches wide, about 25 inches long and not less 
than 2 nor more than 3 inches deep. These are inside 
measurements. The box is fitted with nails an inch 
apart and threads are stretched between the opposite 
nails on the sides and also on the ends. The seeds are 



152 



MISCELLANEOUS ANALYSES. 



planted where the crossing's are made by these string's, 
so the operator knows where to look for the plants to 
come up. 




Fig 50. 

The g-ermination test lasts fifteen days from the time 
of planting-. During- this period keep the soil moist on 
top all the time, watering every morning- and when nec- 
essary during- the day. Use the water from a bucket 
kept standing- near the g-ermination box, for it must be 
of the same temperature as the room. Keep the box in a 
hot house having- a temperature of from 75 to 85 Far. , 
and g-ive it all the sun possible. Make a record every 
day at the same hour of the number of seeds which have 
sprouted up to that time, and also of the number which 
have come up and died. At the end of the fifteen days 
count the total number of plants (g-erms) living-, also the 
number that have died, fig-uring- the number of g-erms 
per seed. Also count the number of seeds having- 1 
g-erm, 2 g-erms, 3 g-erms, etc. From the total number of 
g-erms is fig-ured the monetary value of the seed. It is 
usual to consider a 2 gr sample having- 150 g-erminations 



MISCELLANEOUS ANALYSES. 153 

as the standard, and a sample having- more or less germs 
has a greater or less value in proportion. Some fixed 
value, e. g., 20 cents per kilo, is taken as a standard and 
all germination tests are fig-ured on this basis. 

Example : 

A test shows 140 g-erminations. Its value on the 
basis of 20 cents per kilo for standard seed fig-ured by 
the proportion : 

150 : 140 : : 20 : x 
x = 18 67, the value in cents per kilo. 



be 
' 

O 
O 



^J 



g 


oj 

1/3 

iH 

bjo 


2 

0) 



Si2 

a! O.CJ 



TJ- r<5 00 
rH Tf rH ?\ 



rH O O O 



LO vO 

5s 



rH ^- rH 
^ T(- v^ 



(^ Tj- U) ON ^t 



t^ X d 1^ 

rH C^ VO d 



- 1^. 00 vO 

rH rH O 



^O 00 1> f O Tf 

rH rH \O 



M CO Cq rH CO 



<* O O rH O rH 



O OO O O 



o o o o o 



Date 
anted. 



eeds 
ampl 



oS 



o oo ro 



6. 



MISCELLANEOUS ANALYSES. 155 

122. Sulphur. In the examination of sulphur for 
decolorizing purposes it is usual to determine the water, 
organic matter and ash, the sum of these subtracted from 
100 giving the per cent, of sulphur. Weigh out 10* r of 
the coarsely powdered sample in a porcelain crucible for 
the moisture determination and dry at 100C. Weigh 
and estimate the per cent, of water lost. In this de- 
termination the weighings must be made as quickly as 
possible, as the sample readily absorbs moisture from 
the air. After determining the water, heat the crucible 
and contents over a low flame and light the sulphur 
with a match. The crucible is now removed from the 
flame and placed where the fumes will readily go off in 
the air. When the sulphur is all burned, cool the cruci- 
ble in a dessicator and weigh, recording the weight. 
The contents now consist of the ash and the organic 
matter. The latter is burned away over a moderate 
flame and the crucible cooled and weighed again. The 
difference between this weight and the one just recorded, 
is the weight of organic matter and is calculated into 
percentage, and the difference between the last weighing 
and the weight of the crucible is the ash, which is also 
calculated into percentage. As before stated, the sum 
of the per cent, moisture, organic matter and ash is sub- 
tracted from 100 to give the per cent, sulphur. 

Sulphur can usually be obtained in a very pure state, 
the following being two sample analyses : 

Per Cent. Moisture 10 .17 

Per Cent. Organic Matter 38 .30 

PerCent. Ash 03 .01 

Per Cent. Sulphur 99.49 99.52 

100.00 100.00 



1 5 MISCELLANEOUS ANALYSES. 

123* Anhydrous Ammonia* In factories having 
Steffen's plants, where the cooling- is done artificially by 
a refrigerating machine, it is of considerable importance 
to determine the quality of anhydrous ammonia used. 
HENRY FAUROT, in an article in Cassier's Magazine, 
gives the determination of boiling point as the principal 
test. The lower the boiling- point, the freer the ammo- 
nia is of impurities. Also, the lower the temperature at 
which the ammonia expands, the cheaper it is to use. 
MR. FAUROT determines the boiling- point as follows : 
"Draw off (from the ammonia cylinder) about six to 
eig-ht ounces of liquid ammonia into a cylindrical- 
shaped g-lass or chemical beaker. Place this on a wet 
plate or surround it with water, and when it boils insert 
into it the bulb only of a special low standard chemical 
thermometer, reading- off throug-h the walls of the glass, 
and observing the temperature when the mercury 
remains stationary, as the boiling point. Commercially 
pure liquid ammonia should boil at not higher than 28.6 
degrees below zero F ; lower temperature denotes purer 
ammonia, while a less pure ammonia boils at a higher 
temperature. In testing for the boiling point, the ther- 
mometer should be held as stationary as possible, and 
not moved about in the liquid." 

It is of importance to determine whether inflammable 
gases are present in the ammonia, as they are the prin- 
cipal impurities, and are especially harmful in the fact 
that they decompose the ammonia and lessen its refrig- 
erating power. The following qualitative test is suffi- 
cient: A short iron pipe is screwed into the valve of the 
ammonia cylinder and is so bent that the ammonia can 
be discharged into the bottom of a bucket of cold water. 
Submerge over the mouth of the pipe a glass funnel, 



MISCELLANEOUS ANALYSES. 157 

with the end of the stem tightly corked. Allow the am- 
monia to flow in a small stream and the ammonia gas 
will be absorbed by the water, while the other gases 
will rise to the top of the funnel. If methane or other 
inflammable gases are present, they will, if released and 
lighted with a match, burn with a blue flame. 

1 24. Lubricating Oils* are often adulterated by the 
addition of low grade oils and other matters. The ex- 
amination of the principal lubricants is conducted as fol- 
lows, the tests given being for the most common 
substances used in adulteration : 



Castor Oil. Dissolve in alcohol and if black poppy 
oil is present it will remain as a residue. 

Cocoanut Oil should dissolve completely in cold ether. 
If adulterants are present, the etheral solution will be 
muddy. The oil also has a more grayish color when 
adulterated than when pure. Mutton suet, beef marrow 
and other animal greases are most commonly used for 
adulteration. 

Lard. Melt at a low temperature, and if water is 
present it will separate from the grease. Digest the 
lard with hot distilled water and test with silver nitrate 
for chlorides (common salt). Melt the lard in warm 
water, and if plaster of paris is present it will go to the 
bottom in the form of a white powder. 



*Adapted from R. S. CHRISTIANI. 



158 MISCELLANEOUS ANALYSES. 

Linseed OH. The oil if pure will become a pale pink 
if treated with hyponitric acid and dark yellow if treated 
with ammonia, giving a thick soap in the latter case. 

Neatsfoot Oil. Test the same as castor oil. 
Olive Oil. Test the same as castor oil. 

Rapeseed Oil. Ammonia gives a yellowish colored 
soap when added to the oil containing- mustard and 
whale oil, and a white soap when the oil is pure. Chlo- 
rine gas colors the oil brown when it contains whale oil, 
but if pure it remains colorless. 

Tallow. Dissolve in ether and foreign substances will 
remain as a residue. Test this residue for starch by the 
addition of iodine water, a blue color indicating- starch. 
Other parts of the residue may be tested in the well- 
known ways (with ammonia and with ammonium oxalate) 
for. aluminum and calcium, the former indicating- the 
presence of kaoline and the latter marble dust. Test 
also for sulphuric acid with barium chloride, as barium 
sulphate is also used as an adulterant. Intermix a small 
portion of the tallow with half its volume of dried and 
powdered copper sulphate. If water is present, the 
mixture will turn blue if the tallow is white, and green 
if the tallow is yellow. 

The Purity of lubricating- oils is often approximately 
determined by taking- their specific gravity by means of 
a pycnometer or with the Beaume hydrometer (see 76) 
and comparing- them with the known specific gravities of 
standard samples. If, in this test, there is any wide di- 
vergence found, the sample is assuredly impure. The 
following is WALUS-TAYLER'S table of specific gravity 
for oils : 



MISCELLANEOUS 

TABLE E. 

Standard Specific Gravities of Lubricants. 




159 



NAME. 


SP. G. 


NAME. 


SP. G. 


Castor 


9611 


Palm 


9680 


Cocoanut 


9202 


Paraffin, volatile 


.7 to .865 


Cocoanut Butter 


8920 


Paraffin, heavy 


.865 to 9 


Cod Liver 


917 to 92 


Paraffin, solid 


.9 to .93 


Colza 


.9136 


Petroleum 


.8800 


Cotton Seed 


.9252 i 


Piney Tallow 


.9260 


Flax 


3 9347 


Rape 


.9136 


Grape Seed 


.9202 


Rosin . 


.9900 


Hemp 


9276 


Sperm .... 


8810 


Lard 


.9380 


Sun-fish . 


874to 879 


Linseed 


9347 


Sunflower . 


9262 


Neatsfoot 


.9250 


Tar 


1 2600 


Nut 


.9260 


Turpentine 


.8640 


Olive 


.9176 


Whale 


.911*0.922 











Oxidation of Oils. The length of time an oil is fit 
for lubrication is tested by finding* how long it takes to 
oxidize. NASMYTH recommends for this a common plate 
of iron 6^ feet long by 4 inches wide, such as may 
always be found in the blacksmith shop of a sugar 
factory. On one surface are cut, with a planing ma- 
chine, a number of parallel longitudinal grooves. One 
end of the plate is raised about 8 inches higher than the 
other and equal small portions of the different oils to be 
tested are poured into the grooves at the upper end. The 
distance each oil traverses down its particular groove is 
noted, and also the length of time that elapses before 
each oil becomes thickened by oxidation and ceases to 
flow. This often takes several days. 

Flash TesU The power of lubricants to resist over- 
heating in work is determined by the flash test described 
in 76. Animal and vegetable oils should not flash 
under 400 and mineral oils should not flash under 300. 



l6o MISCELLANEOUS ANALYSES. 

125. Fluxes and Rust Joints. It is not at all an in- 
frequent occurrence that a machinist comes to the 
laboratory and asks for some chemical to use as a flux in 
soldering- or welding- certain metals, or for some com- 
pound to use in making- a rust joint. The following- is a 
list of fluxes for common metals ; 

Brass Sal Ammoniac Lead Resin (or Tallow) 

Copper Sal Ammoniac Lead and Tin. Resin and Sweet Oil 

Iron Borax Zinc Zinc Chloride 

Iron (tinned) Resin 

A quick-setting- rust cement for calking- joints in cast- 
iron pipes, tanks, etc., is made with 1 part sal ammoniac, 
2 parts powdered sulphur, and 80 parts iron boring's. 
Add water and make a thick paste. A better rust joint, 
but one which sets more slowly, is made, according- to 
MOLESWORTH, with 2 parts sal ammoniac, one part pow- 
dered sulphur, and 200 parts of iron borings. Make into 
a thick paste with water. 

126. Crude Acids for boiling- out evaporators are 
tested only for sp. g-., and this is done with a Beaume 
spindle, being- compared with Table II. The streng-th 
of the acids increase with their specific gravity. The 
accompanying tables, F, G and H, show the strength of 
hydrochloric, sulphuric and nitric acid for the corre- 
sponding specific gravity. 

127. Soda used in boiling out multiple effects is 
tested only for its percentage of sodium carbonate. 
Weigh out 2 gr of the sample, transfer to an alkalimeter 
and find the weight of carbonic acid lost (see 52), 
Divide this weight by 2 (the weight used) and multiply 
by 100 to obtain the percentage of carbonic acid. This 
percentage multiplied by the factor 2.4117, gives the 
percentage of sodium carbonate. 



MISCELLANEOUS ANALYSES. l6l 

Example : 

Weight of alkalitneter and soda 75 . 9568 r 

Weight of same after operation 75 . 147gr 

809gr 

0.809 ~ 2 x 100 = 40.45 per cent. CO 2 . 
40.45 x 2.4117 = 97.55 per cent, sodium carbonate. 



162 



MISCELLANEOUS ANALYSES. 



TABLE F. 

Showing the strength of Hydrochloric Acid (Muriatic Acid) Solutions 

TEMPERATURE, 153 c. 
[Graham-Otto's I,ehrb. d. Chem. 3 Aufl. II. Bd. 1. Abth. p. 382.] 



Sp. Gr. 


HCl. 


Cl. 


Sp. Gr. 


HCl. 


Cl. 


Sp. Gr. 


HCl. 


Cl 


1.2000 


40.777 


39.675 


1.1328 


26.913 


26.186 


1.0657 


13.456 


13.094 


1.1982 


40.369 


39.278 


1 . 1308 


26.505 


25 . 789 


1.0637 


13.049 


12.697 


1 1964 


39.961 


38.882 


1 . 1287 


26.098 


25.392 


1.0617 


12.641 


12.300 


1.1946 


39.554 


38.485 


1 . 1267 


25.690 


24.996 


1 . 0597 


12.233 


11.903 


1.1928 


39 . 146 


38.089 


1 . 1247 


25.282 


24.599 


1 . 0577 


11.825 


11.506 


1.1910 


38.738 


37.692 


1 . 1226 


24.874 


24.202 


1 . 0557 


11.418 


11 . 109 


1 1893 


38.330 


37.296 


1 . 1206 


24.466 


23.805 


1 . 0537 


11.010 


10.712 


1.1875 


37.923 


36.900 


1 . 1185 


24.058 


23.408 


1 1.0517 


10.602 


10.316 


1 1857 


37.516 


36.503 


1.1164 


23.650 


23.012 


1 . 0497 


10.194 


9.919 


1.1846 


37.108 


36 . 107 


1 . 1143 


23.242 


22.615 


1 . 0477 


9.786 


9 522 


1.1822 


36.700 


35.707 


1 . 1123 


22.834 


22.218 


1.0457 


9.379 


9.126 


1.1802 


36.292 


35 310 


1 . 1102 


22.426 


21.822 


1.0437 


8.971 


8.729 


1.1782 


35.884 


34.913 


1 . 1082 


22.019 


21.425 


1.0417 


8.563 


8.332 


1.1762 


35.476 


34.517 


1 . 1061 


21.611 


21.028 


1.0397 


8.155 


7.935 


1 1741 


35.068 


34.121 


1 . 1041 


21.203 


20.632 


1.0377 


7.747 


7.538 


1 1721 


34.660 


33.724 


1 . 1020 


20.796 


20.235 


1.0357 


7.340 


7.141 


11701 


34.252 


33.328 


1 . 1000 


20.388 


19.837 


1.0337 


6.932 


6.745 


1 1681 


33.845 


32.931 


1.0980 


19.980 


19 . 440 


1.0318 


6.524 


6.348 


1.1661 


33.437 


32.535 


1.0960 


19.572 


19.044 


1.0298 


6.116 


5.951 


1.1641 


33.029 


32.136 


1.C939 


19.165 


18.647 


1.0279 


5.709 


5.554 


1 1620 


32.621 


31.746 


1.0919 


18.757 


18.250 


1.0259 


5.301 


5.158 


1 1599 


32.213 


31.343 


1.0899 


18 . 349 


17.854 


1.0239 


4.893 


4.762 


11578 


31.805 


30.946 


1.0879 


17.941 


17.457 


1.0220 


4.486 


4.365 


11557 


31.398 


30.550 


1.0859 


17.534 


17.060 


1.0200 


4.078 


3.968 


1 1537 


30.990 


30.153 


1.0838 


17.126 


16.664 


1.0180 


3.670 


3.571 


11515 


30.582 


29.757 


1.0818 


16.718 


16 . 267 


1.0160 


3.262 


3.174 


1 1494 


30.174 


29.361 


1.0798 


16.310 


15 . 870 


1.0140 


2.854 


2.778 


1 1473 


29.767 


28.964 


1.0778 


15.902 


15 . 474 


1 . 0120 


2.447 


2.381 


1 1452 


29.359 


28.567 


1.0758 


15.494 


15 . 077 


1 . 0100 


2.039 


1.984 


1 1431 


28 951 


28.171 


1.0738 


15.087 


14.680 


1.0080 


1.631 


1.588 


1.1410 


28 . 544 


27.772 


1.0718 


14.679 


14.284 


1.0060 


1.124 


1.191 


1 1389 


28.136 


27.376 


1.0697 


14.271 


13.887 


1 . 0040 


0.816 


0.795 


1 1369 


27.728 


26.979 


1.0677 


13.863 


13.490 


1.0020 


0.408 


0.397 


1 1349 


27.321 


26 . 583 















TABLE G. 

Showing the Strength of Sulphuric Acid of Different Densities, at 
15 Centigrade. (Otto's Table. ) 



Per. Cent ol 
H2SO4- 


Specific 
Gravity 


Per Cent, of 

so 3 . 


Per Cent, of 
H2S04 . 


Specific 
Gravity 


Per Cent, of 
S0 3 . 


100 


1.8426 


81.63 


50 


1.3980 


40.81 


99 


1.8420 


80.81 


49 


1.3866 


40.00 


98 


1.8406 


80.00 


48 


1.3790 


39.18 


97 


1.8400 


79.18 


47 


1.3700 


38.36 


96 


1.8384 


78.36 


46 


1.3610 


37.55 


95 


1.8376 


77.55 


45 


1.3510 


36.73 


94 


1.8356 


7673 


44 


1 . 3420 


35.82 


93 


1 . 8340 


7591 


43 


1.3330 


35.10 


92 


1 . 8310 


75 10 


42 


1.3240 


34.28 


91 


1.8270 


7428 


41 


1.3150 


33.47 


90 


1.8220 


73.47 


40 


1.3060 


32.65 


89 


1.8100 


7265 


39 


.2976 


31.83 


88 


1.8090 


7183 


38 


.2890 


31.02 


87 


1 . 8020 


7102 


37 


.2810 


30.20 


86 


1.7940 


70 10 


36 


.2720 


29.38 


85 


1.7860 


69.38 


35 


.2640 


28.57 


84 


1.7770 


68.57 


34 


.2560 


27.75 


83 


1 . 7670 


67 75 


33 


.2476 


26.94 


82 


1 . 7560 


6694 


32 


.2390 


26.12 


81 


1 . 7450 


66.12 


31 


.2310 


25.30 


80 


1.7340 


6530 


30 


1.2230 


24.49 


79 


1.7220 


64.48 


29 


1.2150 


23.67 


78 


1.7100 


6367 


28 


1.2066 


22.85 


77 


1.6980 


6285 


27 


1 . 1980 


22.03 


76 


1.6860 


62 04 


26 


1.1900 


21.22 


75 


1.6750 


6122 


25 


1 . 1820 


20.40 


74 


1.6630 


6040 


24 


1 . 1740 


19.58 


73 


1.6510 


5959 


23 


1 . 1670 


18.77 


72 


1.6390 


5877 


22 


.1590 


17.95 


71 


1.6270 


57 95 


21 


.1516 


17.14 


- 70 


1.6150 


57 14 


20 


.1440 


16.32 


69 


1.6040 


5632 


19 


.1360 


15.51 


68 


1.5920 


5559 


18 


.1290 


14.69 


67 


1.5800 


5469 


17 


.1210 


13.87 


66 


1.5860 


53.87 


16 


.1136 


13.06 


65 


1 . 5570 


5305 


15 


. 1060 ' 


12.24 


64 


1.5450 


5222 


14 


.0980 


11.42 


63 


1.5340 


5142 


13 


.0910 


10.61 


62 


1.5230 


5061 


12 


.0830 


9.79 


61 


1.5120 


49 79 


11 


.0756 


8.98 


60 


1.5010 


4898 


10 


.0680 


8.16 


59 


1.4900 


48 16 


9 


.0610 


7.34 


58 


1 . 4800 


4734 


8 


.0536 


6.53 


57 


1 . 4690 


4653 


7 


.0464 


5.71 


56 


.4586 


45.71 


6 


.0390 


4.89 


55 


.4480 


44.89 


5 


1.0320 


4.08 


54 


.4380 


44.07 


4 


1.0256 


3.26 


53 


.4280 


4326 


3 


1.0190 


2.44 


52 


.4180 


42.45 


2 


1.0130 


1.63 


51 


.4080 


4163 


1 


1.0064 


0.81 



TABLE H. 

Showing the Strength of Nitric Acid by Specific Gravity. Hydrated 
and Anhydride. 
TEMPERATURE 15 o . 
(Fresenius, Zeitschrift f. analyt. Chemie. 5.449.) 



Sp. Gr. 


100 PARTS 


CONTAIN 


Sp. Gr. 


100 PARTS 


CONTAIN 


at 150 C. 


N20 5 


N03 


at 150 c. 


N20s 


N0 3 H 


1.530 


85.71 


100.00 


1.488 


75.43 


88.00 


1.530 


85.57 


99.84 


1.486 


74.95 


87.45 


1.530 


85.47 


99.72 


1.482 


73.86 


86.17 


1.529 


85.30 


99.52 


1.478 


72.16 


85.00 


1.523 


83.90 


97.89 


1.474 


72.00 


84.00 


1.520 


83.14 


97.00 


1.470 


71.14 


83.00 


1.516 


82.28 


96.00 


1.467 


70.28 


82.00 


1.514 


81.66 


95.27 


1.463 


69.39 


80.96 


1.509 


80.57 


94.00 


1.460 


68.57 


80.00 


1.506 


79.72 


93.01 


1.456 


67.71 


79.00 


1.503 


78.85 


92.00 


1.451 


66.56 


77.66 


1.499 


78.00 


91.00 


1.445 


65.14 


76.00 


1.495 


77.15 


90.00 


1.442 


64.28 


75.00 


1.494 


76.77 


89.56 


1.438 


63.44 


74.01 


1.435 


62.57 


73.00 


1.295 


39.97 


46.64 


1.432 


62.05 


72 39 


1.284 


38.57 


45.00 


1. 429 


61.06 


71.24 


1.274 


37.31 


43.53 


1.423 


60.00 


69.96* 


1.264 


36.00 


42.00 


1.419 


59.31 


69.20 


1.257 


35.14 


41.00 


1.414 


58.29 


68.00 


1.251 


34.28 


40.00 


1.410 


57.43 


67.00 


1.244 


^ *"> A 1 

oo . 4o 


39.00 


1.405 


56.57 


66.00 


1.237 


32.53 


37.95 


1.400 


55.77 


65.07 


1.225' 


30.86 


36.00 


1.395 


54.85 


64.00 


.218 


29.29 


35.00 


1.393 


54.50 


63.59 


.211 


29.02 


33.86 


1.386 


53.14 


62.00 


.198 


27.43 


32.00 


1.381 


52.46 


61.21 


.192 


26.57 


31.00 


1.374 


51.43 


60.00 


.185 


25.71 


30.00 


1.372 


51.08 


59.59 


1.179 


24.85 


29.00 


1.368 


50.47 


58.88 


1.172 


24.00 


28.00 


1.363 


49.71 


58.00 


1.166 


23.14 


27.00 


1.358 


48.86 


57.00 


1.157 


22.04 


25.71 


1.353 


48.08 


56.10 


1.138 


19.71 


23.00 


1.346 


47.14 


55.00 


1.120 


17.14 


20.00 


1.341 


46.29 


54.00 


1.105 


14.97 


17.47 


1.339 


46.12 


53.81t 


1.089 


12.85 


15.00 


1.335 


45.40 


53.00 


1.077 


11.14 


13.00 


1.331 


44.85 


52.33 


1.067 


9.77 


11.41 


1.323 


43.70 


50.99 


1.045 


6.62 


7.22 


1.317 


42.83 


49.97 


1.022 


3.42 


4.00 


1.312 


42.00 


49.00 


1.010 


1.71 


2.00 


1.304 


41.14 


48.00 


0.999 


0.00 


0.00 


1.298 


40.44 


47.18 









* Formula : NOsH 



f Formula : NOsH + 3H2O. 



PART III. 



Preparation of Reagents. 



CHAPTER XVII. 
PREPARATION OF REAGENTS. 

128. Lead Acetate (Basic Acetate of Lead Solution}. 
Put 900s r of acetate of lead and 300 ?r of lead oxide in 
1 liter of water at 150P. Let stand in a warm place 
for two days, shaking- every few hours. Solutions of 
other densities can be made by using- different amounts 
of the acetate* and oxide, but in the same proportion of 3 
to 1. In most German factories a solution with a sp. g-. 
of 1.20 to 1.25 is used. The beet analysts at Chino pre- 
fer a solution having- a sp. g. of from 1.30 to 1.35, for 
rapid beet work, and G. L. SPENCER says the U. S. De- 
partment . of Agriculture analysts also prefer a very 
concentrated solution. 

1 29. Alumina Cream, according; to the directions of 
the U. S. Department Internal Revenue, is prepared as 
follows : Shake up powdered commercial alum with 
water at ordinary temperature until a saturated solution 
is obtained. Set aside a little of the solution, and to 
the residue add ammonia, little by little, stirring- 
between additions, until the mixture is alkaline to litmus 
paper. Then drop in additions of the portions left 
aside, until the mixture is just acid to litmus paper. By 
this procedure a cream of aluminum hydroxide is obtained 
suspended in a solution of ammonium sulphate, the 
presence of which is not at all detrimental for sug-ar 
work when added after subacetate of lead, the ammo- 
nium sulphate precipitating- whatever excess of lead 
may be present. 



PREPARATION OF REAGENTS. 1 67 

130. Normal Sodium Solution. 53. 08 r of pure 
sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ) previously ignited to dull 
redness, are dissolved in water, and the solution is 
diluted to exactly 1 liter. 

131. /Normal Hydrochloric Acid. Dilute 200 OC of 
pure hydrochloric acid of 1.10 sp. g. with water to 1 
liter. Normal acid should be of such strength that a 
certain amount of it will exactly neutralize an equal 
amount of normal sodium solution. The proportion 
above given will make an acid that is too strong-. Take 
20 CC of normal sodium solution, color with phenol, and 
add enough of the acid made to neutralize the sodium, 
measuring- the amount of acid used with a burette. If, 
for example, it is found by repeated experiments that 
17.8 CC of acid neutralizes the 20 CC of sodium solution, 
then the acid must be diluted to 20 CC by adding- 2.2 CC of 
water, and all the acid must be diluted in the same pro- 
portion. 

Example: 

60 CC has been used to find the streng-th of the acid; 
then 940 CC of acid remain. 

17.8 :2.2 ::940 : x 
x=116 2, 

The number of cc of water that must be added to the 
940 CC of acid to make a normal solution. After adding 
this water, verify by seeing- if 20 CC of the acid will neu- 
tralize the 20 CC of the sodium solution. 

132. /Normal Sulphuric Acid. Pour, while con- 
stantly stirring-, one part of concentrated sulphuric acid 
into 15 equal parts of water, and, after cooling, make 
110 CC of the solution up to 1100 CC with water. Mix thor- 
oughly and measure off 100 CC . In three parts of 25 CC 



J 68 PREPARATION OF REAGENTS. 

each of this amount determine the weight of sulphuric 
anhydride (SO 3 ) in each l cc of the solution, analyzing 
with barium sulphate, as described in 59. Three tests 
are made to insure accuracy. From the contents of sul- 
phuric acid, as determined by the tests, estimate how 
much water must be added to the remaining- liter of solu- 
tion so that each cc will contain 0.040 gr of SCK 

Example : 

The average of the three tests gives 0.313 gr of barium 
sulphate in 25 CC of the acid or 1.252 gr in 100 CC . Convert- 
ing- to SO 3 by use of the factor, 

1 . 252 x . 3432 = . 4297s*. 

Therefore each 100 CC must be diluted according to the 

formula : 

. 40 : . 4297 : : 100 : x 
x = 107.425, 

A dilution of 7.425 CC for each 100 CC or 74.25 CC for the 
liter. After adding this amount of water to the liter of 
acid it is well to make a final test. 

133. /Normal /Nitric Acid. Dilute 200 CC concentrated 
nitric acid of 1.2 sp. g. with water to 1 liter, and then 
proceed exactly as with the formation of normal hydro- 
chloric acid. 

1 34. The Special Acid for alkalinities is made ac- 
cording to 36. It may be made from hydrochloric, 
nitric or sulphuric acid. 

135. Phenol (Phenolphtalein). Dissolve the phe- 
nolphtalein powder in the smallest amount of alcohol 
and dilute with water to 4 or 5 times the volume of alco- 
hol. This indicator turns red in the presence of alkalies. 



PREPARATION OF REAGENTS. 169 

136. Rosolic Acid. Dissolve 1 part in 100 parts of 
alcohol. This indicator becomes colorless in the pres- 
ence of free acid. 

137. Cochineal. Mix 3 r of pulverized cochineal 
with 50 CC of strong- alcohol and 200** of water. Let stand 
for 48 hours, shaking frequently. 

138. Litmus Solution. Digest 1 part of powdered 
litmus with 6 parts of alcohol on a water bath until the 
coloring matter soluble in alcohol is dissolved. Pour off 
the alcoholic solution and digest the residue with dis- 
tilled water. Filter and divide the fluid into two por- 
tions. In one portion stir with a glass rod dipped in very 
dilute nitric acid until the color just appears red. Add 
enough of the second portion to bring back the blue 
color and then turn the mixture red with the rod and 
acid as before. Add the remainder of the second portion 
and the whole should be perfectly neutral. Mix with an 
equal part of 90 per cent, alcohol and preserve in an un- 
stoppered bottle away from acid fumes. 

139. Litmus Paper. Prepare a litmus solution as 
above and divide in two portions. Make one portion red 
by the addition of a drop or two of nitric acid and the 
other a distinct blue by a drop or two of caustic soda so- 
lution. Dip strips of Swedish filter paper in the red so- 
lution for acid paper and into the blue for alkaline 
paper. Dry away from laboratory fumes and preserve 
in an unstoppered bottle. For ordinary work any un- 
glazed paper may be used but in chemical analysis where 
small pieces of the paper are often burned with the pre- 
cipitates, the Swedish paper must be used. Acid solu- 
tions turn blue litmus paper red and alkaline solutions 
turn the red paper blue. 



l7o PREPARATION OF RE AGENTS*. 

140. Turmeric Paper. Boil 1 part of powdered 
turmeric with 4 parts of alcohol and 2 of water. Filter 
and dip strips of unglazed paper into the filtrate. Dry 
and preserve in a stoppered bottle away from the light. 
Free alkalies turn the yellow color of the paper to brown. 

141. Silver /Nitrate Solution {Standard}. Dissolve 
4.794 gr of pure crystallized silver nitrate in 1 liter of 
water. Kach cc of this solution will precipitate l mg of 
chlorine, and in a solution of common salt the precipi- 
tate formed from the use of 25 CC of the silver nitrate 
solution should weig-h 0.101 gr . 

142. Fehling's Solution (Soxhlefs Modification'} is 

prepared as follows : 

(1) Dissolve 34.639 gr of copper sulphate (free from 
nitric acid) in water and dilute to 500 CC . 

(2) Dissolve I73 ?r of sodium and potassium tartrate 
(Rochelle salts) in water and dilute to 400 CC , mixing- the 
solution with 100 CC of sodium hydroxide solution. The 
latter is prepared by dissolving- 500 gr of caustic soda in 1 
liter of water, and should be of 1.393 sp. g-. at 15C. 

Mix i and 2 in equal volumes immediately before 
using-. 

143. Solution for Standardizing Fehling's. -- The 

method for determining- the amount of invert sug-ar nec- 
essary to reduce the copper in 10 CC of Fehling-'s mixed so- 
lutions is g-iven in 48. For determining- how much dex- 
trose is necessary for the same purpose, dissolve 4 gr of 
pure anhydrous dextrose in distilled water and make up 
to 1 liter. Bach cc of this solution will then contain 
0.004 gr dextrose. Make the test as usual and the number 



PREPARATION OF REAGENTS. 1 71 

of cc of the solution used, multiplied by 4, will give the 
number of milligrammes of dextrose which reduce the 
copper. 

144. Pipette Solution (for cleaning-). Dissolve 1 
part bichromate of potash in 10 parts water and add 1 
part concentrated sulphuric acid. This solution is used 
to cleanse pipettes from the film of fat which sometimes 
forms on the inside. Fill the pipette with the solution, 
cork one end and stand on the stopped end for twenty- 
four hours. 

145. Molybdic Solution. Dissolve 50* r of molybdic 
acid in 20Qs r or 208 CC of ammonia, specific gravity, 0.96, 
and pour the solution thus obtained into 750* r or 625 CC of 
nitric acid, specific gravity 1.20. Keep the mixture in a 
warm place for several days, or until a portion heated to 
40 deposits no yellow precipitate of ammonium phos- 
phomolybdate. Decant the solution from any sediment 
and preserve it in glass-stoppered vessels. 

146. Magnesia Mixture. Dissolve ll* r of recently 
ignited calcined magnesia in dilute hydrochloric acid, 
avoiding an excess of the latter. Add a little calcined 
magnesia in excess, and boil a few minutes to precipitate 
iron, alumina, and phosphoric acid ; filter ; add 140 gr of 
ammonium chloride, 3SO CC of ammonia of specific grav- 
ity 0.96, and water enough to make a volume of 1 liter. 
Instead of the solution of ll* r of calcined magnesia, 
155 gr of crystallized magnesium chloride (MgCl 2 .6H 2 O) 
may be used. 

147. Ammonium Citrate Solution. Dissolve 185* r 
of commercial citric acid in 750 CC of water; nearly neu- 
tralize with commercial ammonia; cool; add ammonia 



172 PREPARATION OF REAGENTS. 

until exactly neutral '(testing- with alcoholic solution of 
rosolic acid), and bring- to volume of 1 liter. Determine 
the specific gravity, which should be 1.0900 at 20,, be- 
fore using-. 

148. Baryta Solution. Pour 300 or 400 CC of boiling 
water over 25 gr of crystallized barium hydrate, and filter 
the hot solution quickly throug-h a folded filter, into a 
bottle, then diluting- to 1 liter. Utmost speed is neces- 
sary as the fluid is liable to become dim by the forma- 
tion of barium carbonate, carbonic acid being- attracted 
from the air. The making- of a normal baryta solution 
is not advisable, as it is unstable, and the value of the 
solution, as made above, must always be determined 
before using- (see 96). Litmus solution should always 
be used as an indicator with this preparation. 

149. Orsat's Apparatus Reagents are described in 
87. 

1 5O. Powdered Glass or Sand for use in determin- 
ing the dry substance of massecuites should be thorough- 
ly dig-ested with warm and dilute hydrochloric acid to 
dissolve all foreign material, then washed with water, 
dried at 100 and preserved in a perfectly air-tig-ht jar. 



PREPARATION OF REAGENTS. 



173 



TABLE I. 

PREPARATION OF REAGENTS. 



NAME. 


Symbol. 


PREPARATION. 


Aqua Regia 




Prepare when required by adding 


Sodium Hydrate 
Potassium Hydrate 
Baryta Water 


NaOH 
KOH 
BaO 2 H 2 


three or four parts of concentrated 
HC1 to 1 part concentrated HNOs. 
Dissolve 1 part pure caustic soda in 
20 parts of water 
Dissolve 1 part pure caustic potas- 
sium in 20 parts of water. 
Dissolve 1 part barium hydrate in 5 


Calcium Hydrate . 


CaO 2 H 2 


parts of water. 
Digest slacked lime with cold water. 


Sodium Carbonate 

Ammonium Chloride... 
" Sulphate 
Oxalate 

" Carbonate.- 
Sulphide... 

Potassium Sulphate 
" Iodide . 


Na 2 C0 3 

(NH) 4 C1 
(NH 4 ) 2 S0 4 
(NH 4 ) 2 C 2 4 

(NH 4 ) 2 C0 3 
(Nt 4 ) 2 S 

K 2 SO 4 
KI 


shaking occasionally. Filter off 
the clear liquid. 
When required dissolve 1 part of the 
salt in 5 parts of water. Do not 
let stand in a glass bottle. 
Dissolve 1 part in 6 parts of water. 
Dissolve 1 part in 5 parts of water. 
Dissolve 1 part of the pure salt in 
20 parts of water. 
Dissolve 1 part in o parts of water 
and add 1 part of ammonia water. 
Pass sulphuretted hydrogen thro'gh 
ammonia until saturated. Then 
add % of the volume of the same 
ammonia. 
Dissolve 1 part of the salt in 12 
parts of water. 


Chromate .... 
Ferri cyanide.. 

" Ferrocyanide . 
Barium Chloride 


K 2 Cr0 4 
K6Fe 2 Cy Z2 

K 4 FeCy 6 

Df.pl 


Dissolve 1 part in 10 parts of water . 
Prepare only when required by dis- 
solving 1 part of the salt in 12 
parts of water. 
Dissolve 1 part of the salt in 12 parls 
of water. 


11 Carbonate .'. 


TJoPf). 


of water 


" Hydrate 




nate to give it a thick consistency. 


Copper Sulphate 
Platinum Bichloride . . 

Silver Nitrate. 


CuS04 
PtCl 4 

A rrfj C\ 


Dissolve 1 part in 10 parts of water. 
[See 142 for Fehling's solution.] 
The cheapest way to obtain this 
reagent is to buy the 5 per cent, 
solution of commerce. 


Acetic Acid .... 


AgNL3 


[See 141 for standard solution.] 


Sodium Phosphate .... 


2 rl 4 VJ 2 
HNa 2 PO 4 


cake analysis use the No. 8 acid 
which contains 30 per cent. C 2 H 4 
O 2 . 
Dissolve 1 part of pure salt in ]0 




+12H 2 


parts of water. 



174 



PREPARATION OF REAGENTS. 

TABLE I CONTINUED. 

PREPARATION OF REAGENTS. 



NAME. 


Symbol. 


PRBPARATION. 


Hydrogen Disodium 
Phosphate 




[See sodium phosphate ] 


Calcium Sulphate 


CaSO 4 


Digest in cold water and pour off 


Hydrochloroplatinic 
Acid . 


H 2 PtCl6 


the clear liquid for use. 
Dissolve 1 part of the acid in 10 


Ammonium Nitrate 




parts of water. [See platinum 
bichloride.] 


Magnesia Mixture 




[See 146 ] 


Molybdic Solution 




[See 145 ] 


Magnesium Nitrate 
Solution 




[See 95a.] 


Potassium bichromate . . 
11 Ferrocyanide. 
Acetic Acid 


K 2 Cr 2 O 7 
K6Fe 2 Cyi2 
C 2 H 4 O 2 


Dissolve 1 part ol the salt in 10 
parts of water. 
For Fehling's test dissolve 2gr of 
the salt in lOOcc of water. 
No. 8 acetic acid (30 per cent CaH4 









PMRT IV. 



TABLES 



i 7 6 



TABLE 1. 

BRIX TEMPERATURE CORRECTION. 

For Variations from Normal, IT 



<i 


a, 


APPROXIMATE DEGREE BRIX AN* CORRECTION. 


Ho 


= - 




s 








. 5 


10 


15 


20 


25 


30 


35 


40 


50 


60 


70 


75 





32 


27 


30 


41 


52 


6? 


7? 


8? 


9? 


P8 


1 11 


1 w 


1 9S 


1 9Q 




41 


23 


30 


37 


44 


52 


SQ 


6S 


79 


7S 


80 


88 


91 


4 


10 


50. 


.20 


.26 


.29 


.33 


.36 


.39 


.42 


.45 


.48 


.50 


.54 


.58 


.61 


11 


51.8 


.18 


.23 


.26 


.28 


.31 


.34 


.36 


.39 


.41 


.43 


.47 


.50 


.53 


12 


53.6 


.16 


.20 


.22 


.24 


.26 


.29 


.31 


.33 


.34 


.36 


.40 


.42 


.46 


13 


55.4 


.14 


.18 


.19 


.21 


.22 


.24 


.26 


.27 


.28 


.29 


.33 


.35 


.39 


14 


57.2 


.12 


.15 


.16 


.17 


.18 


.19 


.21 


.22 


.22 


.23 


.26 


.28 


.32 


15 


59.0 


.09 


.11 


.12 


.14 


.14 


.15 


.16 


.17 


.16 


.17 


.19 


.21 


.25 


16 


60.8 


.06 


.07 


.08 


.09 


.10 


.10 


.11 


.12 


.12 


.12 


.14 


.16 


.18 


17 


62.6 


.02 


.02 


.03 


.03 


.03 


.04 


.04 


.04 


.04 


.04 


& 


.05 


.06 



[Add the correction to readings above 17^C (63>F) and subtract 
the correction from those below this temperature.] 



18 


64.4 


.02 


.03 


.03 


.03 


.03! .03 


.03 


.03 


.03 


.03 


.03 


.031 .02 


19 


66.2 


.06 


.06 


.08 


.08 


.091^09 


.10 


.10 


.10 


.10 


.10 


.08 .06 


20 


68.0 


.11 


.14 


.15 


.17 


.IjfT.lH 


.18 


.18 


.19 


.19 


.18 


.15L.11 


21 


69.8 


.16 


.20 


.22 


,24 


.24 .25 


.25 


.25 


.26 


.26 


.25 


JBr-i8 


22 


71.6 


.21 


.26 


.29 


.31 


.31 .32 


.32 


.32 


.33 


.34 


.321. 29) .25 


23 


73.4 


.27 


.32 


.35 


.37 


.38 .3^ 


.39 


.39 


*o 


.42 




.33 


24 


75.2 


.32 


.38- 


.41 


.43 


.44 .46 


.46 


.47 


.47 


.50 


.46 .43 


.40 


25 


77.0 


.37 


.44 


.47 


.49 


.51 .53 


.54 


.55 


.55 


.58 


.54 


.51 


.48 


26 


78.8 


.43 


.50 


.54 


.56 


.58 .60 


.61 


.62 


.62 


.66 


.62 


.58 


.55 


27 


80.6 


.49 


.57 


.61 


.63 


.65 ! .68 


.68 


.69 


.70 


.74 


.70 


.65 


.62 


28 


82.4 


.56 


.64 


.68 


.70 


.72 .76 


.76 


.78 


.78 


.82 


.78 


.72 


.70 


29 


84.2 


.63 


.71 


.75 


.78 


.79| .84 


.84 


.86 


.86 


.90 


.86 


- .80 


.78 


30 


86.0 


.70 


.78 


.82 


.87 


.87 .92 


.92 


.94 


.94 


.98 


.94 


.88 


.86 


35 


95.0 


1.10 


1.17 


1.22 


1.24 


1.301.32 


1.33 


1.35 


1.36 


1.39 


1.34 


1.27 


1.25 


40 


104.0 


1.50 


1.61 


1.67 


1.71 


1.731.791.79 


1.80 


1.82 


1.83 


1.78 


1.69 


1.65 


50 


122.0 




2.65 


2.74 


2.74 


2.782.802.80 


2.80 


2.80 


2.79 


2.70 


2.56 


2.51 


60 


140.0 




3.87 


3.88 


3.88 


3.883.883.88 


3.88 


3.90 


3.82 


3.70 


3.43 


3.41 


70 


158.0 






5.18 


5.20 


5.145.135.10 


5.08 


5.06 


4.90 


4.72 


4.47 


4.35 



177 



For practical work the table given below is sufficiently accurate 
unless the solution has a brix of under 5 or over 25. In some factories 
the temperature correction for diffusion juice is given in tenths and 
hundredths of a degree, but for all other tests the tenths is a suffi- 
cient correction : 

TEMPERATURE CORRECTION. 



Temperature. 
C. F. 


Subtract from *Brix. 


14 


57 


.2 


15 


59 


.1 


16 


61 


.1 


17 


63 


.0 






Add to Brix. 


18 


64 


.0 


19 


66 


.1 


20 


68 


.2 


21 

22 


70 

72 


m 


23 


73 


.4 


24 


75 


.4 


25 


77 


.5 


26 


79 


.6 


27 


81 


.6 


28 


82 


.7 


29 


84 


.8 


30 


86 


.9 


31 


88 


.9 


32 


90 


1.0 


33 


91 


1.0 


34 


93 


1.1 


35 


95 


1.2 



I 7 8 



TABLE II. 

Comparison of Degrees Brix and Baume and Specific Gravity 

FOR PURE SUGAR SOLUTIONS. 

Temperature 17% C = 63 5 Far. 



Degrees 
Brix. 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Degrees 
Baume. 


Degrees 
Brix. 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Degrees 
Beaume. 


0.0 


1 00000 


00 


4 


1 01570 


2 27. 


0.1 


1 00038 


0.06 


4 1 


1.01610 


2 33 


0.2 


1.00077 


11 


4 2 


1.01650 


2.38 


3 


1.00116 


17 


4 3 


1 01690 


2 44 


4 


1.00155 


0.23 


4.4 


1 01730 


2.50 


0.5 


1.00193 


28 


4.5 


1 01770 


2.55 


0.6 


1- 00232 


34 


4 6 


1.01810 


2 61 


0.7 


1.00271 


40 


4.7 


1 01850 


2 67 


0.8 


1.00310 


0.45 


4 8 


1 01890 


2.72 


09 


1.00349 


51 


4 9 


1 01930 


2.78 


10 


1 00388 


57 


5.0 


1 . 01970 


2 84 


1.1 


1.00427 


0.63 


5.1 


1 02010 


2 89 


1.2 


1.00466 


68 


5.2 


1 02051 


2 95 


1 3 


1 00505 


74 


5 3 


1 02091 


3.01 


1.4 


1.00544 


0.80 


5 4 


1.02131 


3 06 


1 5 


1 00583 


85 


5 5 


1 02171 


3.12 


1 6 


1 00622 


91 


5 6 


1 02211 


3.18 


1.7 


1 00662 


97 


5.7 


02252 


3.23 


1 8 


1 . 00701 


1 02 


5 8 


.02292 


3.29 


1.9 


1.00740 


1.08 


5.9 


. 02333 


3.35 


2.0 


1.00779 


1 14 


6 


.02373 


3.40 


2 1 


1 00818 


1 19 


6 1 


02413 


3.46 


2.2 


1 00858 


1.25 


6 2 


.02454 


3 52 


2 3 


1.00897 


1 31 


6 3 


02494 


3.57 


2.4 


1 00936 


1 36 


6 4 


.02535 


3 63 


2 5 


1 00976 


1.42 


6 5 


02575 


3.69 


2.6 


01015 


1 48 


6 6 


.02616 


3.74 


2.7 


01055 


1 53 


6.7 


02657 


3.80 


2.8 


. 01094 


1 59 


6.8 


02697 


3 86 


2 9 


01134 


1 65 


6.9 


.02738 


3.91 


3.0 


01173 


1 70 


70 


02779 


3 97 


3.1 


01213 


1.76 


7 1 


.02819 


4 03 


3.2 


01252 


1 82 


7.2 


02860 


4 08 


3.3 


1 01292 


1.87 


7 3 


1 02901 


4 14 


3.4 


1 01332 


1 93 


7 4 


1 02942 


4 20 


3 5 


1 01371 


1.99 


7 5 


1 02983 


4.25 


3.6 


1 01411 


2 04 


7.6 


1 03024 


4.31 


3 7 


1 01451 


2 10 


7 7 


1 . 03064 


4.37 


38 


1 01491 


2.16 


7.8 


1 03105 


4.42 


3 9 


1.01531 


2 21 


7 9 


1 03146 


4.48 



TABLE II. CON 



179 



Degrees 
Brix. 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Degrees 
Baume. 


Degrees 
Brix. 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Degrees 
Baume. 


8.0 


1.03187 


4.53 


12.4 


.05021 


7.02 


8.1 


1.03228 


4.59 


12.5 


.05064 


7 08 


8 2 


1.03270 


4.65 


12.6 


.05106 


7.13 


8.3 


1.03311 


4.70 


12.7 


.05149 


7.19 


8.4 


1.03352 


4.76 


12.8 


.05191 


7.24 


8.5 


1.03393 


4.82 


12.9 


.05233 


7.30 


8.6 


1 . 03434 


4.87 


13.0 


1.05276 


7.36 


8 7 


1 . 03475 


4.93 


13.1 


1.05318 


7.41 


8.8 


1 03517 


4.99 


13.2 


1.05361 


7.47 


8.9 


1.03558 


5-04' 


13.3 


1.05404 


7.53 


9.0 


1.03599 


5.10 


13 4 


1.05446 


7.58 


9.1 


1.03640 


5.16 


13.5 


1.05489 


7.64 


9.2 


1.03682 


5.21 


13 6 


1.05532 


7 69 


9.3 


1.03723 


5.27 


13.7 


1 05574 


7.75 


9.4 


1.03765 


5.33 


13.8 


1.05617 


7.81 


9.5 


1 03806 


5.38 


13.9 


1.05660 


7 86 


9.6 


1.03848 


5.44 


14.0 


1.05703 


7.92 


9.7 


1.03889 


5.50 


14.1 


1.05746 


7.98 


9.8 


1.03931 


5.55 


14.2 


1 05789 


8.03 


9.9 


1.03972 


5.61 


14.3 


1.05831 


8.09 


10.0 


1.04014 


5 67 


14.4 


1 05874 


8.14 


10.1 


1.04055 


5.72 


14.5 


1.05917 


8.20 


10.2 


1 . 04097 


5.78 


14.6 


1.05960 


8.26 


10.3 


1.04139 


5.83 


14.7 


1.06003 


8.31 


10.4 


1.04180 


5.89 


14.8 


1 06047 


8.37 


10.5 


1.04222 


5.95 


14 9 


1.06090 


8 43 


10.6 


1.04264 


6.00 


15.0 


1.06133 


8.48 


10.7 


1.04306 


6.06 


15.1 


1 . 06176 


8.54 


10.8 


1.04348 


6.12 


15.2 


1.06219 


8.59 


10.9 


1.04390 


6.17 


15.3 


1 . 06262 


8.65 


11.0 


1.04431 


6 23 


15.4 


1.06306 


8.71 


11.1 


1.04473 


6.29 


15.5 


1 . 06349 


8.76 


11.2 


1.04515 


6.34 


15 6 


1.06392 


. 8.82 


11 3 


1.04557 


6.40 


15.7 


1.06436 


8.88 


11.4 


1.04599 


6.46 


15.8 


1.06479 


8.93 


11.5 


1.04641 


6 51 


15.9 


1.06522 


8 99 


11.6 


1.04683 


6.57 


16.0 


1.06566 


9.04 


11.7 


1 04726 


6.62 


16.1 


1.06609 


9.10 


11.8 


1.04768 


6.68 


16.2 


1.06653 


9.16 


11.9 


1 . 04810 


6.74 


16.3 


1 . 06696 


9.21 


12.0 


1 . 04852 


6.79 


16.4 


1.06740 


9.27 


12.1 


1.04894 


6.85 


16.5 


1.06783 


9.33 


12.2 


. 1.04937 


6.91 


16.6 


1.06827 


9.38 


12.3 


1.04979 


6.96 


16.7 


1.06871 


9.44 



i8o 



TABLE II. CON. 



Degrees 
Brix. 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Degrees 
Baume. 


Degrees 
Brix. 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Degrees 
Baume. 


16.8 


1.06914 


9.49 


21.2 


1.08869 


11.96 


16.9 


1.06958 


9.55 


21.3 


1.08914 


12.01 


17.0 


1.07002 


9.61 


21.4 


.08959 


12.07 


17.1 


1.07046 


9.66 


21.5 


.09004 


12.13 


17.2 


1 07090 


9.72 


21 6 


.09049 


12.18 


17.3 


1.07133 


9.77 


21.7 


.09095 


12.24 


17.4 


1.07177 


9.83 


21.8 


.09140 


12 29 


17.5 


1.07221 


9.89 


21.9 


.09185 


12.35 


17.6 


1.07265 


9.94 


22.0 


.09231 


12.40 


17.7 


1 . 07309 


10.00 


22.1 


. 09276 


12.46 


17.8 


1.07358 


10.06 


22.2 


.09321 


12.52 


17.9 


1.07397 


10.11 


22.3 


.09367 


12.57 


18.0 


1.07441 


10.17 


22.4 


.09412 


12.63 


18.1 


1.07485 


10.22 


22.5 


.09458 


12.68 


18.2 


1.07530 


10.28 


22.6 


.09503 


12.74 


18.3 


1.07574 


* 10-. 33 


22.7 


.09549 


12.80 


18.4 


1.07618 


10.39 


22.8 


.09595 


12.85 


18.5 


1.07662 


10.45 


22.9 


.09640 


12.91 


18.6 


1.07706 


10.50 


23.0 


.09686 


12.96 


18.7 


.07751 


10.56 


23.1 


1.09732 


13.02 


18.8 


.07795 


10.62 


23.2 


1.09777 


13.07 


18.9 


.07839 


10.67 


23.3 


1.09823 


13.13 


19.0 


.07884 


10.73 


23.4 


1 . 09869 


13.19 


19.1 


.07928 


10.78 


23.5 


1.09915 


13.24 


19.2 


.07973 


10.84 


23.6 


1.09961 


13.30 


19.3 


1.08017 


10.90 


23.7 


1.10007 


13.35 


19.4 


1.08062 


10.95 


23.8 


1 . 10053 


13.41 


19.5 


1 . 08106 


11.01 


23.9 


1.10099 


13.46 


19.6 


1.08151 


11.06 


24.0 


1 . 10145 


13.52 


19.7 


1.08196 


11.12 


24.1 


1.10191 


13.58 


19.8 


1.08240 


11.18 


24.2 


1 . 10237 


13.63 


19.9 


1.08285 


11.23 


24.3 


1 . 10283 


13.69 


20.0 


1.08329 


11.29 


24.4 


1 . 10329 


13.74 


20.1 


1.98374 


11.34 


24.5 


1 . 10375 


13.80 


20.2 


1.08419 


11.40 


24.6 


1 . 10421 


13.85 


20.3 


1.08464 


11.45 


24.7 


1.10468 


13.91 


20.4 


1.08509 


11.51 


24.8 


1 . 10514 


13.96 


20.5 


1.08553 


11.57 


24.9 


1.10560 


14.02 


20.6 


1.08599 


11.62 


25.0 


1 . 10607 


14.08 


20.7 


1.08643 


11.68 


25.1 


1.10653 


14.13 


20.8 


1.08688 


11.73 


25.2 


1.10700 


14.19 


20.9 


1.08733 


11.79 


25.3 


1 . 10746 


14.24 


21.0 


1.08778 


11.85 


25.4 


1.10793. 


14.30 


21.1 


1.08824 


11.90 


25.5 


1.10839 


14.35 



TABLE ll.-CoN. 



181 



Degrees 
Brix. 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Degrees 
Baume. 


Degrees 
Brix. 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Degrees 
Baume. 


25.6 


1 . 10886 


14.41 


30.0 


1.12967 _ 


16.85 


25.7 


1 . 10932 


14.47 


30.1 


1.13015 


16.90 


25.8 


1 . 10979 


14.52 


30.2 


1.13063 


16.96 


25.9 


1.11026 


14.58 


30.3 


1.13111 


17.01 


26.0 


1.11072 


14.63 


30.4 


1.13159 


17.07 


26.1 


1.11119 


14.69 


30.5 


1.13207 


17.12 


26.2 


1 . 11166 


14.74 


30.6 


1 13255 


17.18 


26.3 


1.11213 


14.80 


30.7 


1.13304 


17.23 


26.4 


1.11259 


14.85 


30.8 


1.13352 


17.29 


26.5 


1 . 11306 


14.91 


30.9 


1.13400 


17.35 


26.6 


1 11353 


14.97 


31.0 


1.13449 


17.40 


26.7 


1 . 11400 


15.02 


31.1 


1.13497 


17.46 


26.8 


1.11447 


15.08 


31.2 


1.13545 


17.51 


26.9 


1 . 11494 


15.13 


ar< 


1 13594 


17.57 


27.0 


1 . 11541 


15 19 


31.4 . 


1.13642 


17.62 


27.1 


1.11588 


15.24 . 


31.5 


1.13691 


17.68 


27.2 


1 . 11635 


15.30 


31.6 


1.13740 


17.73 


27.3 


1.11682 


15.35 


31.7 


1 . 13788 


17.79 


27.4 


1 . 11729 


15.41 


31.8 


1,13837 


17.84 


27.5 


1.11776 


15 46 


31.9 


1.13885 


17.90 


27.6 


1 . 11824 


15.52 


32.0 


1.13934 


17.95 


27.7 


1.11871 


15.58 


32 1 


1.13983 


18.01 


27.8 


1 . 11918 


15.63 


32.2 


1.14032 


18.06 


27.9 


1.11965 


15 69 


32.3 


1 . 14081 


18.12 


28.0 


1 . 12013 


15.74 


32.4 


1.14129 


18.17 


28.1 


1.12060 


15.80 


32.5 


1.14178 


18.23 


28.2 


1 . 12107 


15.85 


32.6 


1.14227 


18.28 


28.3 


1.12155 


15.91 


32.7 


1.14276 


18.34 


28.4 


1.12202 


15.96 


32.8 


1.14325 


18.39 


28.5 


1 . 12250 


16.02 


32.9 


1 . 14374 


18.45 


28.6 


1 . 12297 


16.07 


33.0 


1 . 14423 


18.50 


28.7 


1 . 12345 


16.13 


33.1 


1.14472 


18.56 


28.8 


1.12393 


16.18 


33.2 


1.14521 


18.61 


28.9 


1.12440 


16.24 


33.3 


1 . 14570 


18.67 


29.0 


1 . 12488 


16.30 


33.4 


1.14620 


18.72 


29.1 


1.12536 


16.35 


33.5 


1.14669 


18.78 


29.2 


1 . 12583 


16.41 


33.6 


1.14718 


18.83 


29.3 


1 . 12631 


16.46 


33.7 


1 . 14767 


18.89 


29.4 


1 . 12679 


16.52 


33.8 


1.14817 


18.94 


29.5 


1.12727 


16.57 


33.9 


1.14866 


19.00 


29.6 


1.12775 


16.63 


34.0 


1.14915 


19.05 


29.7 


1.12823 


16.68 


34.1 


1.14965 


19.11 


29.8 


1.12871 


16 74 


34.2 


1.15014 


19.16 


29.9 1 1.12919 


16.79 


34.3 


1 . 15064 


19.22 



182 



TABLE II. CON. 



Degrees 
Brix. 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Degrees 

Baume 


Degrees 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Degrees 
Baume. 


34.4 


1.15113 


19.27 


38.8 


1.17327 


21.68 


34.5 


1.15163 


19.33 


38.9 


1 . 17379 


21.73 


34.6 


1.15213 


19.38 


39.0 


1 . 17430 


21.79 


34.7 


1 15262 


19.44 


39 1 


1 . 17481 


21.84 


34.8 


1.15312 


19 49 


39.2 


1.17532 


21.90 


34.9 


1.15362 


19.55 


39.3 


1.17583 


21.95 


35.0 


1.15411 


19.60 


39 4 


1.17635 


22.00 


35.1 


1 . 15461 


19.66 


39.5 


1 17686 


22.06 


35.2 


1 . 15511 


19.71 


39.6 


1 . 17737 


22.11 


35.3 


1.15561 


19.76 


39.7 


1 . 17789 


22.17 


35.4 


1 . 15611 


19.82 


39.8 


1.17840 


22.22 


35.5 


1.15661 


19.87 


39.9 


1 . 17892 


22.28 


35.6 


1.15710 


19.93 


40.0 


1 . 17943 


22.33 


35.7 


1.15760 


19.98 


40.1 


1 . 17995 


22.38 


35.8 


1.15810 


20.04 


40.2 


1.18046 


22.44 


35.9 


1.15861 


20.09 


.40.3 


1.18098 


22.49 


36.0 


1.15911 


20.15 


40.4 


1.18150 


22.55 


36.1 


1.15961 


20.20 


40.5 


1 . 18201 


22.60 


36.2 


1.16011 


20.26 


40.6 


1.18253 


22.66 


36.3 


1.16061 


20.31 


40 7 


1.18305 


22.71 


36.4 


1.16111 


20.37 


40.8 


1.18357 


22.77 


36 5 


1.16162 


20.42 


40.9 


1.18408 


22.82 


36.6 


1.16212 


20.48 


41.0 


1.18460 


22.87 


36.7 


1.16262 


20.53 


41.1 


1.18512 


22.93 


36.8 


1.16313 


20.59 


41.2 


1 . 18564 


22.98 


36.9 


1.16363 


20.64 


41.3 


1.18616 


23.04 


37.0 


1 . 16413 


20.70 


41.4 


1 . 18668 


23.09 


37.1 


1 16464 


20 75 


41 5 


1.18720 


23.15 


37.2 


1.16514 


20.80 


41.6 


1.18772 


23.20 


37.3 


1 . 16565 


20.86 


41.7 


1 . 18824 


23.25 


37.4 


1.16616 


20.91 


41.8 


1.18877 


23.31 


37.5 


1.16666 


20.97 


41.9 


1 18929 


23.36 


37.6 


1 . 16717 


21 02 


42.0 


1 . 18981 


23.42 


37.7 


1.16768 


21.08 


42.1 


1.19033 


23.47 


37.8 


1.16818 


21.13 


42.2 


1.19086 


23.52 


37.9 


1.16869 


21 19 


42.3 


1 . 19138 


23.58 


38.0 


1.16920 


21.24 


42.4 


1 . 19190 


23.63 


38.1 


1.16971 


21.30 


42.5 


1.19243 


23.69 


38.2 


1.17022 


21.35 


42.6 


1 . 19295 


23.74 


38.3 


1.17072 


21.40 


42.7 


1 . 19348 


23.79 


38.4 


1.17132 


21.46 


42.8 


1 . 19400 


23.85 


38.5 


1 . 17174 


21.51 


42.9 


1 . 19453 


23.90 


38.6 


1 17225 


21.57 


43.0 


1.19505 


23.96 


38.7 


1.17276 


21 62 


43.1 


1 . 19558 


24.01 



TABLE II. CON. 



183 



Degrees 
Brix. 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Degrees 
Baume. 


Degrees 
Brix. 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Degrees 
Baume. 


43.2 


1 . 19611 


24.07 


47.6 


1.21964 


26.43 


43.3 


1 . 19663 


24.12 


47.7 ' 


1.22019 


26.49 


43.4 


1.19716 


24.17 


47.8 


1.22073 


26.54 


43.5 


1.19769 


24.23 


47.9 


1.22127 


26.59 


43.6 


1.19822 


24.28 


48 


1.22182 


26.65 


43.7 


1 . 19875 


24.34 


48.1 


1.22236 


26.70 


43.8 


1 . 19927 


24.39 


48.2 


1.22291 


26.75 


43.9 


1 19980 


24.44 


48 3 


1.22345 


26.81 


44.0 


1.20033 


24.50 


48.4 


1.22400 


26.86 


44.1 


1.20086 


24.55 


48.5 


1.22455 


26.92 


44 2 


1.20139 


24.61 


48.6 


1.22509 


26.97 


44.3 


1.20192 


24.66 


48.7 


1.22564 


27.02 


44.4 


1.20245 


24.71 


48.8 


1.22619 


27.08 


44 5 


1.20299 


24.77 


48.9 


1.22673 


27.13 


44.6 


1 20352 


24.82 


49.0 


1.22728 


27.18 


44.7 


1.20405 


24.88 


49.1 


1.22783 


27.24 


44.8 


1.20458 


24.93 


49.2 


.22838 


27.29 


44.9 


1.20512 


24.98 


49.3 


.22893 


27.34 


45.0 


1.20565 


25.04 


49.4 


. 22948 


27.40 


45.1 


1.20618 


25.09 


49.5 


.23003 


27.45 


45.2 


1.20672 


25.14 


49.6 


" .23058 


27.50 


45.3 


1.20725 


25.20 


49,7 


.23113 


27.56 


45.4 


1 20779 


25.25 


49.8 


.23168 


27.61 


45.5 


1 20832 


25 31 


49.9 


.23223 


27.66 


45.6 


1.20886 


25.36 


50.0 


1.23278 


27.72 


-45.7 


.20939 


25.41 


50.1 


1.23334 


27.77 


45.8 


.20993 


25.47 


50.2 


1.23389 


27.82 


45.9 


.21046 


25.52 


50.3 


1.23444 


27.88 


46.0 


21100 


25.57 


50.4 


1.23499 


27.93 


46.1 


.21154 


25.63 


50.5 


1.23555 


27.98 


46.2 


1.21208 


25.68 


50.6 


1.23610 


28.04 


46.3 


1.21261 


25.74 


50.7 


1.23666 


28.09 


46.4 


1.21315 


25.79 


50.8 


1.23721 


28.14 


46.5 


1.21369 


25.84 


50.9 


1.23777 


28.20 


46 6 


1 21423 


25.90 


51.0 


1.23832 


28.25 


46.7 


1.21477 


25.95 


51.1 


1.23888 


28.30 


46.8 


1.21531 


26.00 


51.2 


1.23943 


28.36 , 


46.9 


1.21585 


26.06 


51.3 


1.23999 


28.41 


47.0 


1.21639 


26.11 


51.4 


1.24055 


28.46 


47 1 


1.21693 


26.17 


51.5 


1.24111 


28.51 


47.2 


1.21747 


26.22 


51.6 


1.24166 


28 57 


47.3 


1.21802 


26.27 


51.7 


1.24222 


28.62 


47 4 


1 21856 


26.33 


51.8 


1.24278 


28.67 


47.5 


1.21910 


26.38 


51 9 


1.24334 


28.73 



1 84 



TABLE II. CON 



Degrees 
Brix. 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Degrees 
Baume. 


Degrees 
Brix. 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Degrees 
Baume. 


52.0 


1.24390 


28.78 


56.4 


1.26889 


31.10 


52.1 


1.24446 


28.83 


56.5 


1.26946 


31.16 


52.2 


1.24502 


28.89 


56.6 


1.27004 


31.21 


52.3 


1.24558 


28.94 


56.7 


1.27062 


31.26 


52.4 


1.24614 


28 99 


56.8 


1.27120 


31.31 


52.5 


1.24670 


29.05 


56.9 


1.27177 


31.37 


52.6 


1.24726 


29.10 


57.0 


1.27235 


31.42 


52.7 


1.24782 


29.15 


57.1 


1.27293 


31.47 


52.8 


1.24839 


29.20 


57.2 


1 27351 


31.52 


52.9 


1.24895 


29.26 


57.3 


1 . 27409 


31.58 


53.0 


1.24951 


29.31 


57.4 


1.27467 


31.63 


53.1 


1.25008 


29.36 


57.5 


1.27525 


31.68 


53.2 


1.25064 


29 42 


57.6 


1.27583 


31.73 


53.3 


1.25120 


29.47 


57 7 


1.27641 


31.79 


53.4 


1.25177 


29.52 


57.8 


1.27699 


31.84 


53.5 


1.25233 


29.57 


57.9 


1.27758 


31.89 


53.6 


1.25290 


29.63 


58.0 


1.27816 


31.94 


53.7 


1 25347 


29.68 


58.1 


1.27874 


32.00 


53.8 


1 . 25403 


29.73 


58.2 


1.27932 


32 05 


53.9 


1.25460 


29 79 


58 3 


1.27991 


32.10 


54.0 


1.25517 


29.84 


58.4 


1 . 28049 


32.15 


54.1 


1.25573 


29.89 


58.5 


1.28107 


32.20 


54.2 


1.25630 


29.94 


58.6 


1.28166 


32.26 


54.3 


1.25687 


30.00 


58.7 


1.28224 


32.31 


54.4 


1.25744 


30.05 


58 8 


1 28283 


32.36 


54.5 


1.25801 


30 10 


58.9 


1.28342 


32.41 


54.6 


1.25857 


30.16 


59.0 


1.28400 


32.47 


54.7 


1.25914 


30.21 


59.1 


1.28459 


32.52 


54.8 


1.25971 


30.26 


59.2 


1.28518 


32.57 


54 9 


1 26028 


30.31 


59.3 


1.28576 


32.62 


55 


1.26086 


30 37 


59.4 


1.28635 


32.67 


55.1 


1.26143 


30.42 


59.5 


1.28694 


32.73 


55.2 


1.26200 


30.47 


59.6 


1 28753 


32 78 


55.3 


1.26257 


30 53 


59.7 


1.28812 


32.83 


55.4 


1.26314 


30.58 


59.8 


1.28871 


32.88 


55.5 


1.26372 


30.63 


59.9 


1.28930 


32.93 


55.6 


1.26429 


30 68 


60.0 


1.28989 


32.99 


55.7 


1.26486 


30.74 


60.1 


1.29048 


33.04 


55.8 


1.26544 


30.79 


60.2 


1.29107 


33.09 


55.9 


1.26601 


30.84 


60.3 


1.29166 


33.14 


56.0 


1.26658 


30.89 


60.4 


1.29225 


33 20 


56.1 


1.26716 


30.95 


60.5 


1.29284 


33.25 


56.2 


1.26773 


31.00 


60.6 


1.29343 


33.30 


56 3 


1.26831 


31.05 


60.7 


1.29403 


33.35 



TABLE II. CON. 



185 



Degrees 
Brix. 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Degrees 
Baume. 


Degrees 
Brix. 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Degrees 
Baume. 


60.8 


1 . 29462 


33.40 


65 2 


.32111 


35.68 


60.9 


1 . 29521 


33.46 


65 3 


.32172 


35.73 


61.0 


1 29581 


33.51 


65.4 


.32233 


35.78 


61.1 


1 . 29640 


33.56 


65 5 


.32294 


35.83 


61.2 


1.29700 


33.61 


65.6 


.32355 


35.88 


61.3 


1.29759 


33.66 


65.7 


.32417 


35.93 


61.4 


1.29819 


33.71 


65 8 


.32478 


35.98 


61.5 


1.29878 


33.77 


65.9 


.32539 


36 04 


61.6 


1 . 29938 


33.82 


66.0 


1.32601 


36.09 


61 7 


1.29998 


33.87 


66.1 


1.32662 


36.14 


61.8 


1.30057 


33.92 


66.2 


1.32724 


36.19 


61.9 


1.30117 


33.97 


66.3 


1.32785 


36.24 


62.0 


1.30177 


34.03 


66.4 


1.32847 


"36.29 


62.1 


1.30237 


34.08 


66 5 


1.32908 


36 34 


62.2 


1 30297 


34.13 


66 6 


1.32970 


36 39 


62.3 


1 . 30356 


34 18 


66.7 


1.33031 


36.45 


62.4 


1.30416 


34.23 


66 8 


1 33093 


36.50 


62.5 


.30476 


34.28 


66.9 


1.33155 


36.55 


62.6 


.30536 


34.34 


67.0 


1.33217 


36 60 


62.7 


. 30596 


34.39 


67.1 


1.33278 


36.65 


62.8 


.30657 


34.44 


67.2 


1.33340 


36.70 


62.9 


.30717 


34 49 


67.3 


1.33402 


36.75 


63.0 


.30777 


34.54 


67.4 


1.33464 


36.80 


63.1 


1.30837 


34.59 


67.5 


1.33526 


36.85 


63.2 


.30897 


34 65 


67.6 


1.33588 


36.90 


63 3 


! 30958 


34.70 


67.7 


1.33650 


36 96 


63.4 


.31018 


34.75 


67.8 


1.33712 


37.01 


63.5 


.31078 


34.80 


67.9 


1 33774 


37 06 


63.6 


1.31139 


34.85 


68.0 


1.33836 


37.11 


63.7 


1 . 31199 


34.90 


68.1 


1.33899 


37.16 


63.8 


1.3ljb 


34 96 


68.2 


1.33961 


37.21 


63.9 


1.31320 


35.01 


68.3 


1.34023 


37.26 


64.0 


1.31381 


35.06 


68.4 


1.34085 


37.31 


64.1 


1 31442 


35.11 


68.5 


1.34148 


37.36 


64 2 


1.31502 


35.16 


68.6 


1.34210 


37.41 


64.3 


1.31563 


35.21 


68.7 


1 34273 


37.47 


64.4 


1.31624 


35.27 


68 8 


1.34335 


37.52 


64.5 


1.31684 


35.32 


68.9 


1.34398 


37.57 


64 6 


1.31745 


35.37 


69.0 


1.34460 


37.62 


64.7 


1.31806 


35.42 


69.1 


1.34523 


37.67 


64.8 


1.31867 


35.47 


69.2 


1.34585 


37.72 


64.9 


1.31928 


35.52 


69 3 


1.34648 


37.77 


65.0 


1.31989 


35.57 


69.4 


1.34711 


37.82 


65 1 


1.32050 


35.63 


69.5 


1 34774 


37.87 



OF THB 

TT-NTVFVRfiTTY 



1 86 



TABLE II. CON. 



Degrees 
Bjix. 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Degrees 
Baume. 


Degrees 
Brix. 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Degrees 
Baume. 


69.6 


1.34836 


37.92 


74.0 


1 37639 


40.14 


69.7 


1.34899 


37.97 


74 1 


1.37704 


40.19 


69.8 


1.34962 


38.02 


74.2 


1.37768 


40.24 


69.9 


1.35025 


38.07 


74.3 


1.37833 


40.29 


70.0 


1.35088 


38.12 


74.4 


1.37898 


40.34 


70.1 


1 35151 


38.18 


74.5 


1 . 37962 


40.39 


70 2 


1.35214 


38.23 


74.6 


1.38027 


40.44 


70.3 


1.35277 


38.28 


74.7 


1 38092 


40.49 


70.4 


1.35340 


38.33 


74.8 


1.38157 


40.54 


70.5 


1.35403 


38.38 


74 9 


1 38222 


40.59 


70.6 


1.35466 


38.43 


75.0 


1.38287 


40 64 


70.7 


1 35530 


38.48 


75.1 


1.38352 


40.69 


70.8' 


1 35593 


38.53 


75.2 


1.38417 


40 74 


70.9 


1 35656 


38.58 


75.3 


1.38482 


40.79 


71.0 


1.35720 


38 63 


75.4 


1 38547 


40.84 


71.1 


1.35783 


38.68 


75 5 


1.38612 


40 89 


71.2 


1.35847 


38.73 


75.6 


1 38677 


40.94 


71.3 


1.35910 


38 78 


75.7 


1.38743 


40.99 


71.4 


1.35974 


38 83 


75 8 


1 . 38808 


41.04 


71.5 


1.36037 


38 88 


75.9 


1.38873 


41.09 


71.6 


1.36101 


38.93 


76 


1 . 38939 


41.14 


71.7 


1.36164 


38.98 


76.1 


1 . 39004 


41.19 


71.8 


1.36228 


39.03 


76.2 


1 39070 


41 24 


71.9 


1 . 36292 


39.08 


76 3 


1.39135 


41 29 


72.0 


1.36355 


39 13 


76.4 


1.39201 


41.33 


72.1 


1.36419 


39.19 


76 5 


1 39266 


41 38 


72.2 


1 . 36483 


39.24 


76.6 


1.39332 


41.43 


72.3 


1 36547 


39.29 


76.7 


1.39397 


41.48 


72.4 


1.36611 


39 34 


76.8 


1.39463 


41 53 


72 5 


.36675 


39.39 


76.9 


1 39529 


41.58 


72 6 


.36739 


39.44 


77.0 


1.39595 


41.63 


72.7 


36803 


39.49 


77.1 


1.39660 


41.68 


72 8 


.36867 


39.54 


77.2 


1.39726 


41.73 


72.9 


.36931 


39.59 


77.3 


1.39792 


71.78 


73.0 


.36995 


39 64 


77.4 


1.39858 


41 83 


73.1 


37059 


39.69 


77.5 


1.39924 


41.88 


73.2 


.37124 


39.74 


77.6 


1.39990 


41.93 


73.3 


.37188 


39.79 


77.7 


1 . 40056 


41.98 


73.4 


1.37252 


39.84 


77.8 


1 . 40122 


42.03 


73.5 


1.37317 


39.89 


77.9 


1 . 40188 


42.08 


73-6 


1.37381 


39.94 


78.0 


1 . 40254 


42.13 


73 7 


1.37446 


39.99 


78.1 


1 . 40321 


42.18 


73.8 


1.37510 


40.04 


78 2 


1 . 40387 


42.23 


73.9 


1.37575 


40.09 


78.3 


1 . 40453 


42.28 



TABLE II. CON. 



187 



Degrees 
Brix. 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Degrees 
Baurae. 


Degrees 
Brix. 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Degrees 
Baume. 


78.4 


1 . 40520 


42.32 


82.8 


.43478 


44.48 


78.5 


. 40586 


42.37 


82.9 


43546 


44.53 


78.6 


.40652 


42.42 


83 


. 43614 


44.58 


78.7 


.40719 


42.47 


83.1 


.43682 


44.62 


78.8 


.40785 


42.52 


83.2 


.43750 


44.67 


78.9 


.40852 


42.57 


83.3 


.43819 


44.72 


79.0 


.40918 


42.62 


83.4 


.43887 


44.77 


79.1 


1.40985 


42.67 


83 5 


.43955 


44.82 


79.2 


1.41052 


42.72 


83.6 


.44024 


44.87 


79.3 


1.41118 


42.77 


83.7 


.44092 


44.91 


79.4 


1.41185 


42.82 


83.8 


.44161 


44.% 


79.5 


1.41252 


42.87 


83.9 


.44229 


45.01 


79.6 


1.41318 


42.92 


84 


.44298 


45.06 


79.7 


1.41385 


42.96 


84.1 


.44367 


45.11 


79.8 


1 . 41452 


43.01 


84.2 


.44435 


45.16 


79.9 


1 41519 


43.06 


84.3 


1.44504 


45.21 


80.0 


1 . 41586 


43.11 


84.4 


1.44573 


45.25 


80.1 


1.41653 


43.16 


84.5 


1.44641 


45.30 


80.2 


1.41720 


43.21 


84.6 


1.44710 


45.35 


80 3 


1.41787 


43.26 


84.7 


1.44779 


45.40 


80.4 


1.41854 


43.31 


84.8 


1 . 44848 


45.45 


80.5 


1.41921 


43.36 


84.9 


1 . 44917 


45.49 


80.6 


1.41989 


43.41 


85.0 


1.44986 


45.54 


80.7 


1.42056 


43.45 


85 1 


1 . 45055 


45.59 


80.8 


1.42123 


43.50 


85.2 


1.45124 


45 64 


- 80.9 


1.42190 


43.55 


85.3 


' 1.45193 


45.69 


81.0 


1.42258 


43.60 


85.4 


1.45262 


45.74 


81.1 


1.42325 


43.65 


85.5 


1.45331 


45.78 


81.2 


1.42393 


43.70 


85.6 


.45401 


45.83 


81.3 


1.42460 


43.75 


85.7 


.45470 


45.88 


81.4 


1.42528 


43.80 


85.8 


45539 


45.93 


81.5 


1.42595 


43.85 


85.9 


.45609 


45 98 


81.6 


1.42663 


43.89 


86.0 


.45678 


46.02 


81.7 


1.42731 


43.94 


86.1 


1.45748 


46.07 


81.8 


1.42798 


43.99 


86.2 


1.45817 


46.12 


81.9 


1.42866 


44.04 


86.3 


1 45887 


46.17 


82.0 


1.42934 


44.09 


86.4 


1.45956 


46 22 


82.1 


1.43002 


44.14 


86 5 


1 46026 


46.26 


82.2 


1 . 43070 


44.19 


86.6 


1.46095 


46.31 


82 3 


1.43137 


44.24 


86.7 


1 . 46165 


46 36 


82 4 


1.43205 


44.28 


86.8 


1.46235 


46.41 


82.5 


1.43273 


44.33 


86.9 


1.46304 


46.46 


82 6 


1.43341 


44.38 


87 


1.46374 


46.50 


82.7 


1.43409 


44.43 


87.1 


1.46444 


46.55 



i88 



TABLE II. CON. 



Degrees 
Brix. 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Degrees 
Baume 


Degrees 
Brix. 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Degrees 
Baume. 


87.2 


1.46514 


46.60 


91.6 


1.49628 


48.68 


87.3 


1.46584 


46.65 


91.7 


1.49700 


48.73 


87.4 


1.46654 


46.69 


91.8 


1.49771 


48.78 


87.5 


1.46724 


46 74 


91.9 


1 . 49843 


48.82 


87.6 


1.46794 


46 79 


92.0 


1.49915 


48.87 


87.7 


1.46864 


46.84 


92.1 


1.49987 


48.92 


87.8 


1.46934 


46 88 


92.2 


1.50058 


48.96 


87.9 


1.47004 


46.93 


92.3 


1.50130 


49.01 


88 


1.47074 


46.98 


92.4 


1.50202 


49 06 


88.1 


1 47145 


47 03 


. 92 5 


1 50274 


49 11 


88 2 


1 47215 


47.08 


92.6 


1.50346 


49.15 


88.3 


1.47285 


47.12 


92.7 


1 50419 


49.20 


88.4 


1.47356 


47.17 


92.8 


1.50491 


49 25 


88.5 


1.47426 


47.22 


92 9 


1 50563 


49 29 


88.6 


1 . 47496 


47.27 


93 


1.50635 


49.34 


88 7 


1.47567 


47.31 


93.1 


1.50707 


. 49.39 


88.8 


1.47637 


47.36 


93 2 


1.50779 


49 43 


88 9 


1 47708 


47 41 


93.3 


.50852 


49.48 


89 


1.47778 


47.46 


93.4 


.50924 


49 53 


89.1 


1.47849 


47 50 


93 5 


.50996 


49.57 


89 2 


1 47920 


47.55 


93.6 


.51069 


49.62 


89 3 


1 47991 


47.60 


93.7 


.51141 


49.67 


89.4 


1.48061 


47.65 


93.8 


.51214 


49.71 


89.5 


1 48132 


47.69 


93.9 


.51286 


49 76 


89.6 


1.48203 


47.74 


94.0 


.51359 


49.81 


89.7 


1.48274 


47.79 


94.1 


1.51431 


49 85 


89.8 


1 48345 


47.83 


94 2 


1.51504 


49.90 


89.9 


1.48416 


47.88 


94.3 


1.51577 


49.94 


90.0 


1.48486 


47.93 


94.4 


1 51649 


49.99 


90 1 


1.48558 


47 98 


94.5 


1.51722 


50.04 


90 2 


1 48629 


48.02 


94 6 


1.51795 


50.08 


90.3 


1.4S700 


48 07 


94.7 


1.51868 


50.13 


90.4 


1 48771 


48.12 


94.8 


1 51941 


50 18 


90.5 


1.48842 


48.17 


94.9 


1.52014 


50.22 


90.6 


1.48913 


48 21 


95.0 


1 52087 


50.27 


90 7 


1 . 48985 


48.26 


95.1 


1.52159 


50 32 


90.8 


1.49056 


48.31 


95.2 


1.52232 


50.36 


90.9 


1 . 49127 


48.35 


95.3 


1.52304 


50.41 


91.0 


1.49199 


48.40 


95.4 


1.52376 


50.45 


91 1 


1 49270 


48.45 


95.5 


1 52449 


50.50 


91.2 


1.49342 


48.50 


95.6 


1 . 52521 


50.55 


91.3 


1.49413 


48.54 


95.7 


1.52593 


50.59 


91.4 


1 49485 


48.59 


95.8 


1.52665 


50.64 


91 5 


1.49556 


48.64 


95 9 


1.52738 


50.69 



TABLE II. CON, 



189 



Degrees 
Brix. 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Degrees 
Baume. 


Degrees 
Brix. 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Degrees 
Baume. 


96.0 


1.52810 


50.73 


98.1 


1.54365 


51.70 


96.1 


1.52884 


50.78 


98.2 


1 54440 


51.74 


96.2 


1.52958 


50.82 


98.3 


1 55515 


51.79 


96.3 


1 53032 


50.87 


98.4 


.54590 


51.83 


96.4 


1.53106 


50.92 


98.5 


.54665 


51.88 


96 5 


1.53180 


50.96 


98.6 


.54740 


51.92 


96 6 


1.53254 


51.01 


98.7 


.54815 


51.97 


96 7 


1.53328 


51 05 


98.8 


.54890 


52.01 


96.8 


1.53402 


51.10 


98.9 


.54965 


52.06 


96 9 


1.53476 


51.15 


99.0 


1.55040 


52 11 


97 


1.53550 


51.19 


99.1 


1.55115 


52.15 


97.1 


1.53624 


51.24 


99.2 


1.55189 


52.20 


97.2 


1.53698 


51 28 


99.3 


1.55264 


52.24 


97 3 


1.53772 


51 33 


99.4 


1.55338 


52.29 


97.4 


1.53846 


51 38 


99.5 


1.55413 


52.33 


97.5 


1.53920 


51 42 


99.6 


1.55487 


52 38 


97.6 


1.53994 


51.47 


99.7 


1.55562 


52.42 


97.7 


1.54068 


51 51 


99.8 


1.55636 


52.47 


97.8 


1.54142 


51.56 


99.9 


1.55711 


52.51 


97.9 


1 . -S4216 


51 60 


100.0 


1.55785 


52.56 


98.0 


1.54290 


51.65 









190 



TABLE III. 

FOR MAKING "KNOWN SUGAR" SOLUTIONS. 



Polari- 


Grammes C. P. 


Polari- 


Grammes C. P. 


Polari- 


Grammes C. P. 


scope 
Degrees. 


Sugar in 
lOOcc Solution. 


scope 
Degrees 


Sugar in 
lOOcc Solution. 


scope 
Degrees. 


Sugar in 
lOOcc Solution. 


1 


0.260 


35 


9.097 


69 


17.954 


2 


0.519 


36 


9.357 


70 


18.216 


3 


0.779 


37 


9.618 


71 


18.476 


4 


1.039 


38 


9.878 


72 


18.738 


5 


1 298 


39 


10.138 


73 


18.998 


6 


1.558 


40 


10 . 398 


74 


19 . 259 


7 


1.817 


41 


10.659 


75 


19.519 


8 


2.078 


42 


10 919 


76 


19.781 


9 


2 337 


43 


11.180 


77 


20.042 


10 


2.597 


44 


11.440 


78 


20.302 


11 


2.857 


45 


11.701 


79 


20.564 


12 


3.117 


46 


11.961 


80 


20.824 


13 


3.376 


47 


12.222 


81 


21.085 


14 


3.637 


48 


12.482 


82 


21.346 


15 


3.896 


49 


12.743 


83 


21 . 608 


16 


4.156 


50 


13.003- 


84 


21 868 


17 


4.416 


51 


13.264 


85 


22.130 


18 


4.676 


52 


13.524 


86 


22.391 


19 


4.936 


53 


13.784 


87 


22.652 


20 


5 196 


54 


14.044 


88 


22.912 


21 


5.456 


55 


14.305 


89 


23.174 


22 


5.716 


56 


14.566 


90 


23 435 


23 


5.976 


57 


14.826 


91 


23.696 


24 


6 236 


58 


15.087 


92 


23.957 


25 


6.496 


59 


15.347 


93 


24 . 219 


26 


6.756 


60 


15.608 


94 


24 . 480 


27 


7.016 


61 


15.868 


95 


24 742 


28 


7.276 


62 


16.130 


96 


25.002 


29 


7.536 


63 


16 . 390 


97 


25 265 


30 


7.796 


64 


16.651 


98 


25.525 


31 


8.056 


65 


16.912 


99 


25.787 


32 


8.316 


66 


17.173 


100 


26.048 


33 


8.577 


67 


17.433 






34 


8.837 


68 


17.694 







TABLE IV. 

PER CENT. SUGAR IN PULP BY THE VOLUMETRIC METHOD. 



Pol. 


PrCent 
Sugar 


Pol. 


PrCent 
Sugar 


Pol. 


PrCent 
Sugar. 


Pol. 


PrCent 
Sugar. 


Pol. 


Pr Cent 
Sugar. 


05 


.014 


1 45 


.415 


2 85 


.817 


4 25 


1.218 


5 65 


.619 


.10 


029 


1 50 


.430 


2 90 


.831 


4 30 


1 232 


5 70 


633 


.15 


.043 


1 55 


.444 


2.95 


845 


4.35 


1 246 


5.75 


648 


.20 


.057 


1.60 


.458 


3.00 


.860 


4.40 


1 261 


5.80 


.662 


.25 


072 


1.65 


.473 


3 05 


.874 


4.45 


1.275 


5 85 


676 


.30 


.086 


70 


.487 


3 10 


.888 


4 50 


1.289 


5 90 


.691 


.35 


100 


75 


501 


3 15 


.903 


4 55 


1 304 


5 95 


.705 


.40 


.115 


80 


.516 


3 20 


.917 


4.60 


1 318 


6.00 


719 


.45 


129 


.85 


.530 


3 25 


.931 


4 65 


1 332 


6 05 


.733 


.50 


.143 


90 


.544 


3 30 


.946 


4 70 


1 347 


6 10 


.748 


.55 


.158 


95 


.559 


3 35 


.960 


4.75 


1.361 


6.15 


762 


.60 


.172 


2.00 


.573 


3.40 


974 


4.80 


1 375 


6 20 


776 


.65 


.186 


2 05 


.587 


3.45 


.989 


4 85 


1 390 


6 25 


1 791 


.70 


201 


2 10 


.602 


3 50 


1 003 


4.90 


1.404 


6.30 


1 805 


.75 


215 


2 15 


.616 


3.55 


1.017 


4 95 


1.418 


6.35 


1.819 


.80 


229 


2.20 


.630 


3.60 


1.032 


5.00 


1 433 


6 40 


1 834 


.85 


.244 


2 25 


.645 


3 65 


1.046 


5 05 


1.447 


6.45 


1.848 


.90 


258 


2 30 


.659 


3.70 


1 060 


5 10 


1.461 


6 50 


1 862 


.95 


.272 


2 35 


673 


3.75 


1 074 


5 15 


1.476 


6 55 


1 877 


1.00 


287 


2.40 


.688 


3.80 


1.089 


5 20 


1 490 


6.60 


1.891 


1.05 


.301 


2.45 


.702 


3.85 


1.103 


5.25 


1.504 


6.65 


1 905 


1.10 


.315 


2.50 


.716 


3.90 


1.117 


5.30 


1.519 


6.70 


1.920 


1.15 


.330 


2 55 


.731 


3.95 


1.132 


5.35 


1.533 


6 75 


1.934 


1 20 


.344 


2 60 


.745 


4.00 


1.146 


5 40 


1.547 


6.80 


1.948 


25 


.358 


2.65 


.759 


4.05 


1.160 


5.45 


1.562 


6.85 


1.963 


.30 


.372 


2.70 


.773 


4.10 


1 175 


5.50 


1.576 


6.90 


1 977 


35 


.387 


2.75 


.788 


4.15 


1.189 


5.55 


1.590 


6.95 


1 991 


40 


.401 


2.80 


.802 


4.20 


1.203 


5.60 


1.605 


7.00 


2.006 



I 9 2 



TABLE 



ESTIMATION OF PERCENTAGE OF SUGAR BY VOLUMETRIC 

METHOD 



DEGREE BRIX 
From 05 to 12 0. 


Polari- 


APPROXIMATE 


Tenths of 


Per Cent 


scope 
Degrees 


O.5 


l.O 


1 5 


20 


8.5 


3.O 


3.5 


4.0 


4.5 


a Degree. 


Sucrose. 






















0.1 


0.03 


1 


29 


29 


0.29 


0.28 


0.28 


0.28 


0.28 


0.28 


0.28 


2 


06 


2 




57 


0.57 


57 


0.57 


0.56 


0.56 


0.56 


0.56 


0.3 


08 


3 




0.85 


0.85 


85 


0.85 


0.85 


0.85 


0.84 


0.84 


0.4 


11 


4 






1 14 


1.13 


1.13 


1.13 


1.13 


1.13 


1.12 


0.5 


14 


5 






1 42 


1 42 


1.41 


1.41 


1.41 


1.41 


1.40 


0.6 


0.17 


6 








1 70 


1 70 


1.69 


1.69 


1.69 


1.68 


0.7 


0.19 


7 








1 98 


1.98 


1.98 


1.97 


1.97 


1.96 


0.8 


0.22 


8 










2 26 


2.26 


2.26 


2.25 


2.25 


0.9 


0.25 


9 












2.54 


2.54 


2.53 


2.53 




10 












2.82 


2.82 


2.81 


2.81 




11 














3.10 


3.09 


3.09 




12 














3.38 


3.38 


3.37 




13 
















3.66 


3.65 




14 
















3 94 


3 93 


DEGREE BRIX. 


15 


















4.21 


From 12.5 to 20.0. 


16 


















4.49 




17 




















Tenths of 


Percent. 


18 




















a Degree. 


Sucrose. 


19 




















0.1 


03 


20 
71 




















0.2 


0.05 


22 




















0.3 


08 


23 




















0.4 


0.11 


04 




















0.5 


0.13 


25 




















6 


0.16 


26 




















0.7 


0.19 


27 




















0.8 


0.21 


28 




















0.9 


24 


29 






















30 






















31 






















32 






















33 






















34 






















35 






















36 






















37 






















38 






















39 





















v. I93 

FOR USE WITH SOLUTIONS PREPARED BY ADDITION OF 10 
PER CENT. LEAD ACETATE. (SCHMITZ.) 



DEGREI 


I BRI3 


c. 










































Polanscope 
























Degrees. 


5 


5.5 


6.0 


6.5 


7.O 


7.5 


8.O 


8.5 


9.O 


9.5 


10 




28 


0.28 


0.28 


0.28 


0.28 


0.28 


0.28 


0.28 


028 


028 


028 


1 


056 


0.56 


056 


0.56 


0.56 


0.55 


055 


055 


0.55 


0.55 


055 


2 


0.84 


084 


084 


0.84 


0.83 


0.83 


083 


083 


083 


0.83 


0.82 


3 


1.12 


1.12 


1.12 


1 11 


1.11 


1.11 


1 11 


1.11 


1.10 


1 10 


1.10 


4 


1.40 


140 


1 40 


1.39 


1 39 


1.39 


1 38 


1.38 


1.38 


1 38 


1.37 


5 


1 68 


1.68 


1.67 


1.67 


1.67 


166 


1.66 


166 


1.66 


1.65 


1.65 


6 


1.96 


1 96 


1 95 


1.95 


1.95 


1.94 


1 94 


1.93 


1.93 


1.93 


1.92 


7 


224 


224 


223 


2.23 


222 


222 


222 


221 


221 


2.20 


2.20 


8 


252 


2.52 


251 


2.51 


250 


250 


2.49 


249 


248 


2.48 


2.47 


9 


2.80 


2.80 


279 


279 


2.78 


2.78 


2.77 


2.76 


2.76 


2.75 


2.75 


10 


3.08 


308 


307 


306 


306 


305 


305 


304 


3.03 


3.03 


3.02 


11 


3.36 


3 36 


3.35 


3.34 


3.34 


3.33 


3.32 


3 32 


3.31 


3.30 


3.30 


12 


3.64 


3.64 


3.63 


362 


3.61 


3.61 


3.60 


3.59 


3.59 


3.58 


357 


13 


3.92 


3.92 


3.91 


3 90 


389 


3.88 


388 


3 87 


3.86 


385 


3.85 


14 


420 


4 19 


4.19 


4 18 


4.17 


4 16 


4 15 


4 15 


4.14 


4 13 


4 12 


15 


4.48 


447 


4 47 


4.46 


4 45 


4.44 


4.43 


4 42 


4.41 


440 


4.40 


16 


4.77 


476 


475 


4 74 


473 


4.72 


471 


470 


469 


468 


467 


17 




5.03 


502 


5.01 


5 00 


4.99 


4.99 


497 


497 


496 


4.95 


18 




5.32 


531 


529 


5.28 


5.27 


526 


525 


524 


523 


522 


19 






5.58 


5.57 


5.56 


555 


5.54 


553 


552 


551 


550 


20 






5.86 


5.85 


5.84 


5.83 


582 


5.81 


5.79 


5.78 


5.77 


21 








6.13 


6.12 


6 11 


6.09 


608 


607 


6.06 


6.05 


22 








641 


6.40 


638 


6.37 


636 


635 


6.33 


6.32 


23 










667 


6.66 


6.65 


6.64 


662 


661 


660 


24 












6 94 


693 


6.91 


690 


689 


687 


25 












722 


7.20 


7.19 


7.17 


7.16 


7.15 


26 














7.48 


7.46 


7.45 


7 44 


742 


27 














7.76 


7.74 


7.73 


7.71 


7.70 


28 
















802 


800 


7.99 


7.97 


29 


















8.28 


826 


8.25 


30 


















855 


854 


852 


31 


















883 


881 


880 


32 




















9.09 


907 


33 






















935 


34 






















962 


35 
























36 
























37 
























38 
























39 



194 



TABLE 



DEGREE BRIX. 





APPROXIMATE 


From 0.5 to 12.0. 


i 




Tenths of 


Per Cent. 


' tit 


1O 5 


11.0 


11.5 


13. 


13 5 


13 


13.5 


14.0 


11 5 


a Degree. 


Sucrose. 























0.1 


0.03 


1 


0.28 


27 


27 


27 


0.27 


0.27 


0.27 


0.27 


0.27 


0.2 


06 


2 


0.55 


55 


6.55 


0.55 


0.54 


0.54 


54 


0.54 


0.54 


3 


0.08 


3 


0.82 


0.82 


82 


82 


0.82 


0.81 


81 


81 


81 


0.4 


0.11 


4 


1.10 


1.10 


1.09 


1.09 


1.09 


1.09 


1.08 


1.08 


1.08 


0.5 


0.14 


5 


1.37 


1.37 


1.36 


1.36 


1.36 


1.36 


1.35 


1.35 


1.35 


0.6 


0.17 


6 


1.64 


1.64 


1.64 


1.64 


1.63 


1.63 


1.62 


1.62 


1.62 


0.7 


0.19 


7 


1.92 


1.91 


1.91 


1.91 


1.90 


1.90 


1.89 


1.89 


1.89 


0.8 


0.22 


8 


2.19 


2.19 


2.18 


2.18 


2.18 


2.17 


2.17 


2.16 


2.16 


0.9 


0.25 


9 


2.47 


2.46 


2.46 


2.45 


2.45 


2.44 


2.44 


2.43 


2.43 




10 


2.74 


2.74 


2.73 


2.73 


2.72 


2.71 


2.71 


2.70 


2.70 




11 


3.02 


3.01 


3.00 


3.00 


2.99 


2.99 


2.98 


2.97 


2.97 




12 


3.29 


3.28 


3.28 


3.27 


3.26 


3.26 


3.25 


3.24 


3.24 




13 


3.56 


3.56 


3.55 


3.54 


3.54 


3.53 


3.52 


3.51 


3.51 




14 


3.84 


3.83 


3.82 


3.82 


3.81 


3.80 


3.79 


3.78 


3.78 




15 


4 11 


4.11 


4.10 


4.09 


4.08 


4.07 


4.06 


4.06 


4.05 


DEGREE BRIX. 
From 12 5 to 20 0. 


16 


4.39 


4.38 


4.37 


4.36 


4.35 


4.34 


4.33 


4.33 


4.32 




17 


4.66 


4.65 


4.64 


4.63 


4.62 


4.62 


4.61 


4.60 


4.59 






18 


4.93 


4.93 


4.91 


4.91 


4.90 


4.89 


4.88 


4.87 


4.86 


Tenths of 
a Degree. 


Per Cent. 
Sucrose. 


19 


5.21 


5.20 


5.19 


5 18 


5.17 


5.16 


5.15 


5.14 


5.13 






20 


5.49 


5.47 


5.46 


5.45 


5.44 


5.43 


5.42 


5.41 


5.40 


0.1 


0.03 


21 


5.76 


5.75 


5.74 


5.73 


5.71 


5.70 


5.69 


5.68 


5.67 


0.2 


0.05 


22 


6.03 


6.02 


6.01 


6.00 


5.99 


5.97 


5.96 


5.95 


5.94 


0.3 


0.08 


23 


6.31 


6.30 


6.28 


6.27 


6 26 


6.24 


6.23 


6.22 


6.21 


0.4 


0.11 


24 


6.58 


6.57 


6.56 


6.54 


6.53 


6.52 


6.50 


6.49 


6.48 


0.5 


0.13 


25 


6.86 


6.84 


6.83 


6.82 


6.80 


6.79 


6.78 


6.76 


6.75 


0.6 


0.16 


26 


7.13 


7.12 


7.10 


7.09 


7 07 


7.06 


7.05 


7.03 


7.02 


0.7 


0.19 


27 


7.41 


7.39 


7.38 


7.36 


7.35 


7.33 


7.32 


7.30 


7.29 


0.8 


0.21 


28 


7.68 


7.66 


7.65 


7.63 


7.62 


7.60 


7.59 


7.57 


7.56 


0.9 


0.24 


29 


7.96 


7.94 


7.92 


7.91 


7.89 


7.87 


7.86 


7.84 


7.83 




30 


8.23 


8.21 


8.20 


8.18 


8,16 


8.15 


8.13 


8.11 


8.10 




31 


8.50 


8.49 


8.47 


8.45 


8.44 


8.42 


8.40 


8.39 


8.37 




32 


8.78 


8.76 


8.74 


8.73 


8.71 


8.69 


8.67 


8.66 


8.64 




33 


9.05 


9.03 


9.02 


9.00 


8.98 


8.96 


8.94 


8.93 


8.91 




34 


9.33 


9.31 


9.29 


9.27 


9.25 


9.23 


9.22 


9.20 


9.18 




35 


9.60 


9.58 


9.56 


9.54 


9.53 


9.51 


9.49 


9.47 


9.45 




36 


9.88 


9.86 


9.84 


9.82 


9.80 


9.78 


9.76 


9.74 


9.72 




37 


10.15 


10.13 


10.11 


10.09 


10.07 


10.05 


10.03 


10.01 


9.99 




38 




10.40 


10.38 


10.36 


10.34 


10.32 


10.30 


10.28 


10.26 




39 




10.68 


10.66 


10.64 


10.61 


10.59 


10.57 


10.55 


10.53 



V. CON. 



DEGREE BRIX. 


o $ 


15.O 


15.5 


16.0 


16.5 


17.0 


17.5 


18.O 


18.5 


19.0 


19.5 


30.0 


5P 
























ft 


77 


27 


27 


27 


27 


27 


27 


27 0.27 


0.27 


26 


1 


54 


54 


54 


54 


53 


53 


53 


0.53 ! 0.53 


0.53 


53 


2 


0.81 


0.81 


0.80 


0.80 


0.80 


0.80 


0.80 


0.80! 0.79 


0.79 


0.79 


3 


1.08 


1.08 


1.07 


1.07 


1.07 


1.07 


1.06 


1.06 1.06 


1.06 


1.06 


4 


1.35 


1.34 


1.34 


1.34 


1.34 


1.33 


1.33 


1.33 


1.32 


1.32 


1.32 


5 


1.62 


1.61 


1.61 


1.61 


1.60 


1.60 


1.60 


1.59 


1.59 


1.59 


1.58 


6 


1.88 


1.88! 1.88 


1.87 


1.87 


1.86 


1.86 


1.86 


1.85 


1.85 


1.85 


7 


2.15 


2.15 


2.15 


2.14 


2.14 


2.13 


2.13 


2.12 


2.12 


2.12 


2.11 


8 


2.42 


2.42 


2.41 


2.41 


2.40 


2.40 


2.39 


2.39 


2.38 


2.38 


2.37 


9 


2.69 


2.69 


2.68 


2.68 


2.67 


2.67 


2.66 


2.65 


2.65 


2.64 


2.64 


10 


2.96 


2.95 


2.95 


2.94 


2.94 


2.93 


2.92 


2.92 


2.91 


2.91 


2.90 


11 


3.23 


3.22 


3.22 


3 21 


3.20 


3.20 


3.19 


3.18 


3.18 


3.17 


3.17 


12 


3.50 


3.49 


3.49 


3.48 


3.47 


3.46 


3.46 


3.45 


3.44 


3.44 


3.43 


13 


3.77 


3.76J 3.75 


3.75 


3.74 


3.73 


3.72 


3.72 


3.71 


3.70 


3.69 


14 


4.04 


4.03 


4.02 


4.02 


4.01 


4.00 


3.99 


3.98 


3.97 


3.97 


3.96 


15 


4.31 


4.30 


4.29 


4.28 


4.27 


4.26 


4.26 


4.25 


4.24 


4.23 


4.22 


16 


4.58 


4.57 


4.56 


4.55 


4.54 


4.53 


4.52 


4.51 


4.50 


4.49 


4.48 


17 


4.85 


4.84 


4.83 


4.82 


4.81 


4.80 


4.79 


4. 78' 4.77 


4.76 


4.75 


18 


5.12 


5.11 


5.10 


5.09 


5.08 


5.06 


5 05 


5.04 


5.03 


5.02 


5.01 


19 


5.39 


5.38 


5.36 


5.35 


5.34 


5.33 


5.32 


5.31 


5.30 


5.29 


5.28 


20 


5.66 


5.65 


5.63 


5.62 


5.61 


5.60 


5.59 


5.58 


5.56 


5.55 


5.54 


21 


5.93 


5.91 


5.90 


5.89 


5.88 


5.87 


5.85 


5.84 


5.83 


5.82 


5.80 


22 


6.20 


6.18 


6.17 


6.16 


6.14 


6.13 


6.12 


6.11 


6.09 


6.08 


6.07 


23 


6.46 


6.45 


6.44 


6.43 


6.41 


6.40 


6.39 


6,37 


6.36 


6.35 


6.33 


24 


6.73 


6.72 


6.71 


6.69 


6.68 


6.67 


6.65 


6.64 


6.63 


6.61 


6.60 


25 


7.00 


6.99 


6.97 


6.96 


6.95 


6.93 


6.92 


6.90 


6.89 


6.88 


6.86 


26 


7.27 


7.26 


7.24 


7.23 


7.21 


7.20 


7.18 


7.17 


7.15 


7.14 


7.13 


27 


7.54 


7.53 


7.51 


7.50 


7.48 


7.47 


7.45 


7.44 


7.42 


7.40 


7.39 


28 


7.81 


7.80 


7.78 


7.77 


-7.75 


7.73 


7.72 


7.70 


7.68 


7.67 


7.65 29 


8.08 


8.06 


8.05 


8.03 


8.02 


8.00 


7.98 


7.97 


7.95 


7.93 


7.92 


30 


8.35 


8.33 


8.32 


8.30 


8.28 


8.27 


8.25 


8.23 


8.21 


8.20 


8.18 


31 


8.62 


8.60 


8.58 


8.57 


8.55 


8.53 


8.51 


8.50 


8.48 


8.46 


8.45 


32 


8.89 


8.87 


8.85 


8.84 


8.82 


8.80 


8.78 


8.76 


8.75 


8.73 


8.71 


33 


9.16 


9.14 9.12 


9.10 


9.09 


9.07 


9.05 


9.03 


9.01 


8.99 


8.97 


34 


9.43 


9.41( 9.39 


9.37 


9.35 


9.34 


9.31 


9.30 


9.28 


9.26 


9.24 


35 


9.70 


9.681 9.66 


9.64 


9.62 


9.60 


9.58 


9.56 


9.54 


9.52 


9.50 


36 


9.97 


9.95 


9.93 


9.91 


9.89 


9.87 


9.85 


9.83 


9.81 


9.79 


9.77 


37 


10 . 24 


10.22 


10.20 


10.18 


10.15 


10.13 


10.11 


10.09 


10.07 


10.05 


10.03 


38 


10.51 


10.49 


10.46 


10.44 


10.42 


10.40 


10.38 


10.36 


10.34 


10.32 


10.29 


39 



196 



TABLE 



DEGREE BRIX. 


* 


APPROXIMATE 


From 11.5 TO 22 5 


JSs 




Tenths of 


Per Cent 


J3 
op 


11.5 


12. 


13.5 


13.O 


13.5 


14.O 


a Degree. 


Sucrose. 


^ 


















40 


10.93 


10.91 


10.89 


10.86 


10.84 


10.82 


0.1 


0.03 


41 




11.18 


11.16 


11.14 


11.12 


11.09 


0.2 


0.05 


42 




11.46 


11.43 


11.41 


11.39 


11.36 


0.3 


0.08 


43 






11.71 


11.68 


11.66 


11.64 


0.4 


0.11 


44 






11.98 


11.95 


11.93 


11.91 


0.5 


0.13 


45 






12.25 


12.23 


12.20 


12.18 


0.6 


0.16 


46 








12.50 


12.47 


12.45 


0.7 


0.19 


47 










12.74 


12.72 


0.8 


0.21 


48 










13.02 


12.99 


0.9 


0.24 


49 












13.26 




50 
















51 
















52 
















53 
















54 














DEGREE BRIX. 


55 

Cf> 














From 23.0 to 24.0 


OlJ 
















57 














Tenths of Per Ceut. 


58 














a Degree. Sucrose. 


59 














I 


60 














0.1 0.03 


61 














0.2 0.05 


62 














0.3 0.08 


63 














0.4 


0.10 


64 














0.5 


0.13 


65 














0.6 


0.16 


66 














0.7 


0.18 


67 , 














0.8 


0.21 


68 














0.9 


0.23 


69 
















70 
















71 
















7.2 
















73 
















74 
















75 
















76 
















77 
















78 
















79 
















80 















V. CON. 



DEGREE BRIX. 





14.5 


15. 


15.5 


16. 


16.5 


17.0 


17.5 


11 
















fc 


10.80 


10.78 


10.76 


10.73 


10.71 


10.69 


10.67 


40 


11.07 


11.05 


11.03 


11.00 


10.98 


10.96 


10.94 


41 


11.34 


11.32 


11.29 


11.27 


11.25 


11.23 


11.20 


42 


11.61 


11.59 


11.56 


11.54 


11.52 


11.49 


11.47 


43 


11.88 


11.86 


11.83 


11.81 


11.79 


11.76 


11.74 


44 


12.15 


12.13 


12.10 


12.08 


12.05 


12.03 


12.01 


45 


12.42 


12.40 


12.37 


12.35 


12.32 


12.30 


12.27 


46 


12.69 


12.67 


12.64 


12.61 


12.59 


12.56 


12.54 


47 


12.97 


12.94 


12.91 


12.88 


12.86 


12.83 


42.81 


48 


13.23 


13.21 


13.18 


13.15 


13.13 


13.10 


13.07 


49 


13.50 


13.48 


13.45 


13.42 


13.40 


13.37 


13.34 


50 


13.78 


13.75 


13.72 


13.69 


13.66 


13.64 


13.61 


51 




14.02 


13.99 


13.96 


13.93 


13.90 


13.88 


52 




14.29 


14.26 


14.23 


14.20 


14.17 


14.14 


53 






14.53 


14.50 


14.47 


14.44 


14.41 


54 






14.80 


14.77 


14.74 


14.71 


14.68 


55 








15.03 


15.00 


14.97 


14.94 


56 








15.30 


15.27 


15.24 


15.21 


57 








15.57 


15.54 


15.51 


15.48 


58 










15.81 


15.78 


15.75 


59 












16.05 


16.01 


60 












16.31 


16.28 


61 














16.55 


62 














16.82 


63 
















64 
















65 
















66 
















67 
















68 
















69 
















70 
















71 
















72 
















73 
















74 
















75 
















76 
















77 
















78 
















79 
















80 



1 9 8 



TABLE 



DEGREE BRIX. 


& 


APPROXIMATE 


From 11.5 to 22 5. 


4. <U 






'J3 60 














Tenths of 


PerCent. 


Cti qj 


18.0 


18.5 


19. 


19.5 


30.O 


30.5 


a Degree . 


Sucrose. 


2 Q 


















40 


10.64 


10.62 


10.60 


10.58 


10.56 


10.54 


0.1 


0.03 


41 


10.91 


10.89 


10.87 


10.85 


10.82 


10.80 


0.2 


0.05 


42 


11.18 


11.16 


11.13 


11.11 


11.09 


11.07 


0.3 


0.08 43 


11.45 


11.42 


11.40 


11 38 


11.35 


11.33 


0.4 


0.11 44 


11.71 


11.69 


11 66 


11 64 


11.62 


11.59 


0.5 


0.13 45 


11.98 


11.96 


11.93 


11.91 


11.88 


11.86 


0.6 


0.16 


46 


12.25 


12.22 


12.20 


12.17 


12 15 12.12 


0.7 


0.19 


47 


12 51 


12.49 


12.46 


12.44 


12 41 12.39 


0.8 


0.21 


48 


12.78 


12.75 


12.73 


12 70 


12.67 


12.65 


0.9 


0.24 


49 


13,05 


13.02 


12.99 


12.97 


12 94 


12.91 






50 


13 31 


13 29 


13.26 


13.23 


13.20 


13.18 






51 


13.58 


13.55 


13.52 


13.50 


13.47 


13 44 






52 


13 85 


13.82 


13.79 


13.76 


13.73 


13.70 






53 


14.11 


14.08 


14.05 


14 03 


14.00 


13.97 






54 


14.38 


14.35 


14.32 


14.29 


14.26 


14.23 




55 


14.65 


14.62 


14.59 


14.56 


14.53 


14.50 


DEGREE BRIX. 
From 23 to 24.0. 


56 

57 


14.91 
15.18 


14.88 
15.15 


14.85 
15 12 


14.82 
15.09 


14.79 
15.06 


14.76 
15.02 


Tenths of 
a Degree. 


Per Cent. 
Sucrose. 


58 
59 


15.45 
15.71 


15.42 
15.68 


15.38 
15.65 


15.35 
15.62 


15.32 
15.58 


15.29 
15.55 






60 


15.98 


15 95 


15 92 


15.88 


15.85 


15.82 


0.1 


0.03 . 


61 


16.25 


16.21 


16.18 


16.15 


16 11 


16.08 


0.2 


0.05 


62 


16.52 


16.48 


16.45 


16.41 


16.38 


16.35 


0.3 


0.08 


63 


16.78 


16.75 


16.71 


16.68 


16.64 


16.61 


0.4 


0.10 


64 


17.05 


17.01 


16.98 


16.94 


16.91 


16.87 


0.5 


0.13 


65 


17 32 


17.28 


17.24 


17.21 


17 17 


17.14 


0.6 


0.16 


66 




17.55 


17.51 


17.47 


17.44 


17.40 


0.7 


0.18 


67 




17.81 


17.78 


17 74 


17.70 


17.67 


0.8 


0.21 


68 






18.04 


18.00 


17.97 


17.93 


0.9 


0.23 


69 






18.31 


18.27 


18.23 


18.19 






70 








18.53 


18.50 


18.46 






71 










18 76 


18.72 






72 










19.03 


18 99 






73 












19.25 






74 












19.52 






75 












19.78 






76 


















77 


















78 


















79 


















80 















V. CON. 



199 



DEGREE BRIX. 


Polariscope 
















Degrees. 


81.0 


21.5 


22.0 


22 5 


230 


23.5 


240 




10.52 


10.49 


10.47 


10.45 


10.43 


10.41 


10.38 


40 


10.78 


10.76 


10.74 


10.71 


10.69 


10.67 


10.65 


41 


11.04 


11.02 


11.00 


10.97 


10.95 


10.93 


10.90 


42 


11.31 


11.28 


11.26 


11.24 


11.21 


11.19 


11.17 


43 


11.57 


11.55 


11.52 


11.50 


11.47 


11.45 


11.42 


44 


11 83 


11.81 


11.78 


11 76 


11.73 


11.71 


11.69 


45 


12.09 


12.07 


12.05 


12 02 


12 00 


11.97 


11.94 


46 


12 36 


12.33 


12.31 


12.28 


12.26 


12.23 


12 21 


47 


12.62 


12.60 


12.57 


12.54 


12.52 


12.49 


12.47 


48 


12.88 


12.86 


12.83 


12.81 


12.78 


12.75 


12.73 


49 


13.15 


13 12 


13.09 


13.07 


13.04 


13.01 


12.99 


50 


13.41 


13.39 


13.36 


13.33 


13.30 


13.27 


13.25 


51 


13.68 


13.65 


13.62 


13.59 


13.56 


13.53 


13.51 


52 


13.94 


13.91 


13.88 


13.85 


13.82 


13.79 


13.77 


53 


14.20 


14 17 


14.14 


14.11 


14.08 


14.06 


14.02 


54 


14.47 


14.44 


14.41 


14.38 


14.35 


14.32 


14 29 


55 


14.73 


14.70 


14.67 


14.64 


14.61 


14.58 


14.55 


56 


14.99 


14.96 


14.93 


14.90 


14.87 


14.84 


14.81 


57 


15.26 


15.23 


15.19 


15 16 


15.13 


15.10 


15.07 


58 


15.52 


15.49 


15.46 


15.42 


15.39 


15.36 


15.33 


59 


15.78 


15.75 


15.72 


15.69 


15.65 


15.62 


15.59 


60 


16.05 


16.01 


15.98 


15.95 


15.91 


15.88 


15.85 


61 


16.31 


16.28 


16.24 


16.21 


16.18 


16.14 


16.11 


62 


16.57 


16.54 


16.51 


16.47 


16.44 


16.40 


16.37 


63 


16.84 


16.80 


16.77 


16.73 


16.70 


16.66 


16.63 


64 


17.10 


17.07 


17.03 


17.00 


16.96 


16.92 


16.89 


65 


17.37 


17.33 


17.29 


17.26 


17.22 


17.19 


17.15 


66 


17.63 


17.59 


17.56 


17.52 


17.48 


17.45 


17.41 


67 


17.89 


17.86 


17.82 


17.78 


17.74 


17.71 


17.67 


68 


18.16 


18.12 


18.08 


18.04 


18.00 


17.97 


17.93 


69 


18.42 


18 38 


18.35 


18.31 


18.27 


18.23 


18.19 


70 


18.68 


18.65 


18.61 


18.57 


18.53 


18.49 


18.45 


71 


18.95 


18.91 


18.87 


18.83 


18 79 


18.75 


18 71 


72 


19.21 


19.17 


19.13 


19.09 


19.05 


19.01 


18.97 


73 


19.48 


19.44 


19.40 


19.35 


19.31 


19.27 


19.23 


74 


19.74 


19.70 


19.66 


19.62 


19.57 


19.53 


19.49 


75 


20.00 


19.96 


19.92 


19.88 


19.84 


19.80 


19.75 


76 


20.27 


20.22 


20.18 


20.14 


20.10 


20.06 


20.01 


77 




20.49 


20.45 


20.40 


20.36 


20.32 


20.27 


78 




20.75 


20.71 


20.66 


20.62 


20.58 


20.54 


79 






20.97 


20.93 


20.88 


20.84 


20.80 


80 



200 TABLE VI. 

For the Determination of Coefficients of Purity. (KoTTMANN.) 



1 Percent. 
Sucrose. 


PBR CENT. OF NON-SUCROSE = DEGREE BRIX MINUS PER CENT. 
SUCROSE. 


Per Cent. 
Sucrose. 


l.O 


1.1 


1.8 


1 3 


1.4 


15 


1.6 


1.7 


1.8 


8.0 


88.9 


87.9 


87 


86.0 


85.1 


84.2 


83.3 


82.5 


81.6 


8.0 


8.2 


89.1 


88.2 


87.2 


86 3 


85.4 


84.5 


83.7 


82.8 


82.0 


8.2 


8.4 


89.4 


88.4 


87.5 


86.6 


85 7 


84.8 


84.0 


83.2 


82.3 


8 4 


8.6 


89.6 


88.7 


87 8 


86.9 


86.0 


85.1 


84.3 


83.5 


82.7 


8.6 


8.8 


89.8 


88.9 


88 


87.1 


86.3 


85 4 


84 6 


83.8 


83.0 


8 8 


9.0 


90.0 


89.1 


88 2 


87.4 


86 5 


85.7 


84 9 


84.1 


83.3 


9 


9.2 


90.2 


89.3 


88.5 


87.6 


86.8 


86.0 


85.2 


84.4 


83.6 


9.2 


9.4 


90.4 


89.5 


88.7 


87.8 


87 


86.2 


85.5 


84.7 


83.9 


9.4 


9.6 


90.6 


89.7 


88 9 


88.1 


87.3 


86 5 


85.7 


85.0 


84.2 


9 6 


9.8 


90.7 


89.9 


89.1 


88.3 


87.5 


86.7 


86.0 


85.2 


84.5 


9.8 


10.0 


90.9 


90.1 


89 3 


88.5 


87.7 


87.0 


86.2 


85.5 


84.7 


10.0 


10 2 


91.1 


90.3 


89.5 


88.7 


87.9 


87.2 


86.4 


85.7 


85.0 


10.2 


10.4 


91.2 


90.4 


89.7 


88.9 


88.1 


87.4 


86.7 


86.0 


85.2 


10.4 


10 6 


91.4 


90.6 


89.8 


89.1 


88.3 


87.6 


86.9 


86.2 


85.5 


10.6 


10.8 


91.5 


90.8 


90.0 


89.3 


88.5 


87.8 


87.1 


86.4 


85.7 


10.8 


11.0 


91.7 


90.9 


90.2 


89.4 


88.7 


88.0 


87.3 


86.6 


85.9 


11.0 


11.2 


91.8 


91.1 


90.3 


89.6 


88.9 


88.2 


87.5 


86.8 


86.2 


11.2 


11.4 


91.9 


91 2 


90.5 


89.8 


89.1 


88.4 


87.7 


87.0 


86.4 


11.4 


11.6 


92.1 


91.3 


90.6 


89.9 


89.2 


88.5 


87 9 


87.2 


86.6 


11.6 


11.8 


92.2 


91.5 


90.8 


90.1 


89.4 


88.7 


88.1 


87.4 


86.8 


11.8 


12.0 


92.3 


91.6 


90 9 


90.2 


89 6 


88.9 


88.2 


87.6 


87.0 


12.0 


12.2 


92.4 


91.7 


91 


90.4 


89.7 


89.1 


88.4 


87.8 


87.1 


12.2 


12.4 


92.5 


91.9 


91.2 


90.5 


89.9 


89.2 


88.6 


87.9 


87.3 


12.4 


12.6 


92.6 


92.0 


91.3 


90.6 


90.0 


89.4 


88.7 


88.1 


87.5 


12.6 


12.8 


92.7 


92.1 


91.4 


90.8 


90.1 


89.5 


88 9 


88.3 


87.7 


12.8 


13.0 


92.8 


92.2 


91.5 


90.9 


90.3 


89.7 


89.0 


88.4 


87.8 


13.0 


13.2 


92.9 


92.3 


91.7 


91.0 


90.4 


89.8 


89.2 


88.6 


88.0 


13.2 


13.4 


93.0 


92.4 


91.8 


91.2 


90.5 


89.9 


89.3 


88.7 


88.2 


13.4 


13.6 


93.1 


92.5 


91.9 


91.3 


90.7 


90.1 


89.5 


88.9 


88.3 


13.6 


13.8 


93.2 


92.6 


92.0 


91.4 


90.8 


90.2 


89.6 


89.0 


88.5 


13.8 


14.0 


93.2 


92.7 


92.1 


91.5 


90.9 


90 3 


89.7 


89.2 


88.6 


14.0 


14.2 


93.3 


92.8 


92.2 


91.6 


91.0 


90.4 


89.9 


89.3 


88.8 


14.2 


14.4 


93.4 


92.9 


92.3 


91.7 


91.1 


90 6 


90.0 


89.4 


88.9 


14.4 


14.6 


93.5 


93.0 


92.4 


91.8 


91.3 


90 7 


90.1 


89.6 


89.0 


14.6 


14.8 


93.6 


93.1 


92.5 


91.9 


91.4 


90.8 


90.2 


89.7 


89.2 


14.8 


15.0 


93.7 


93.2 


92.6 


92.0 


91.5 


90.9 


90.4 


89.8 


89.3 


15.0 


15.2 


93.8 


93.3 


92.7 


92.1 


91.6 


91 


90.5 


89.9. 


89.4 


15.2 


15.4 


93.9 


93.3 


92.8 


92.2 


91.7 


91.1 


90.6 


90.1 


89.5 


15.4 


15.6 


94 


93 4 


92.8 


92.3 


91.8 


91.2 


90.7 


90.2 


89.7 


15.6 


15.8 


94.1 


93.5 


92.9 


92.4 


91 9 


91.3 


90.8 


90.3 


89.8 


15.8 


16.0 


94.1 


93 6 


93.0 


92.5 


92 


91.4 


90.9 


90.4 


89.9 


16.0 


16.2 


94.2 


93.7 


93.1 


92.6 


92.0 


91.5 


91.0 


90.5 


90.0 


16.2 


16.4 


94.3 


93.7 


93.2 


92.6 


92.1 


91.6 


91.1 


90.6 


90.1 


16.4 


16.6 


94.3 


93.8 


93.3 


92.7 


92.2 


91 .7 


91.2 


90.7 


90.2 


16.6 


16.8 


94.4 


93.9 


93.3 


92.8 


92.3 


91.8 


91.3 


90.8 


90.3 


16.8 


17.0 


94.4 


93.9 


93.4 


92.9 


92.4 


91 9 


91.4 


90.9 


90.4 


17.0 



TABLE VI. CON. 



20 1 



PerCent i 

Sucrose. 


PER CENT. OF NON-SCCKOSE = DEGREE BRIX MINUS PKR CENT. 
SUCROSE. 


PerCent. 
Sucrose. | 


1.9 


2 


2.1 


2.2 


2.3 


2.4 


2 ft 2.6 


2 7 


8.0 


80.8 


80.0 


79.2 


78.4 


77.7 


76.9 


76.2 75.5 


74.8 


8.0 


8.2 


81 2 


80 4 


79.6 


78.8 


78.1 


77.4 


76.6 75.9 


75.2 


8.2 


8.4 


81 5 


80 8 


80 


78.2 


78.5 


77.8 


77.1 i 76.4 


75.7 


8.4 


8.6 


81.9 


81 1 


80.4 


78.6 


78 9 


78.2 


77.5 76.8 


76.1 


8 6 


8 8 


82 2 


81.5 


80.7 


79.0 


79.3 


78.6 


77.9 i 77 2 


76.5 


8.8 


9.0 


82.6 


81.8 


81.1 


79.4 


79.6 


78.9 


78.3 77 6 


76.9 


9.0 


9.2 


82.9 


82.1 


81 4 


79.7 


80.0 


79.3 


78.6 ; 77.9 


77.3 


9.2 


9.4 


83 2 


82.5 


81.7 


80.0 


80 3 


79.9 


79.0 , 78 3 


77.7 


9.4 


9.6 


83.5 


82.8 


82.1 


80.4 


80 7 


80 


79.3 78.7 


78.0 


9.6 


9.8 


83.8 


83.1 


82 4 


80.7 


81.0 


80.3 


79.7 i 79.0 


78 4 


9.8 


10.0 


84 


83 3 


82 6 


81 9 


81.3 


80.6 


80 


79.4 


78 7 


10.0 


10 2 


84.3 


83.6 


82.9 


82.1 


81.6 


81.0 


80.3 


79.7 


79.1 


10.2 


10.4 


84 6 


83 9 


83.2 


82 5 


81.9 


81.2 


80.6 


80.0 


79 4 


10.4 


10.6 


84 8 


84.1 


83 5 


82 7 


82.2 


81 5 


80.9 


80 3 


79.7 


10.6 


10.8 


85 


84.4 


83.7 


83.1 


82 4 


81.8 


81 2 


80 6 


80.0 


10.8 


11.0 


85 3 


84.6 


84.0 


83 4 


82.7 


82.1 


81.5 


80.9 


80.3 


11.0 


11 2 


85 5 


84.8 


84.2 


83 5 


83.0 


82 4 


81.8 


81.2 


80.6 


11.2 


11 4 


85 7 


85.1 


84 4 


82.8 


83 2 


82 6 


82.0 


81.4 


80.9 


11.4 


11 6 


85 9 


85 3 


84 7 


83 1 


83 5 


82 9 


82 3 


81.7 


81 1 


11.6 


11 8 


86 1 


85.5 


84.9 


83 3 


83.7 


83 1 


82.5 


81.9 


81.4 


11.8 


12.0 


86.3 


85 7 


85 1 


83.5 


83.9 


83 3 


82 8 


82 2 


81.6 


12.0 


12 2 


86.5 


85, 9 


85.3 


83.7 


84.1 


83 6 


83.0 


82.4 


81.9 


12.2 


12.4 


86 7 


86 1 


85.5 


83 9 


84.4 


83.8 


83.2 


82.7 J82.1 


12.4 


12.6 


86.9 


86 3 


85.7 


84.1 


84 6 


84 


83.4 


82 9 182.4 


12.6 


12.8 


87 1 


86 5 


85.9 


84.3 


84 8 


84 2 


83.7 


83.1 


82.6 


12 8 


13.0 


87.2 


86.7 


86 1 


84.5 


85 


84.4 


83.9 


83 3 


82.8 


13.0 


13.2 


87 4 


86.8 


86 3 


84.7 


85.2 


84.6 


84.1 


83.5 


83.0 


13.2 


13.4 


87 6 


87.0 


86 5 


84.9 


85 4 


84.8 


84 3 


83.7 


83.2 


13.4 


13.6 


87 7 


87.2 


86 6 


85 1 


85.5 


85 '0 


84.5 


83.9 


83.4 


13.6 


13.8 


87.9 


87 3 


86.8 


85.3 


85.7 


85.2 


84.7 


84 1 


83.6 


13.8 


14.0 


88 1 


87 5 


87.0 


85.4 


85.9 


85 4 


84.8 


84.3 


83.8 


14.0 


14 2 


88 2 


87.7 


87 1 


85.6 


86.1 


85.5 


85.0 


84 5 


84.0 


14.2 


14 4 


88 3 


87.8 


87.3 


85 7 


86.2 


85 7 


85.2 


84.7 


84.2 


14.4 


14.6 


88.5 


88 


87 4 


85.9 


86 4 


85 9 


85.4 


84.9 


84.4 


14.6 


14.8 


88 6 


88 1 


87.6 


86.1 


86 5 


86.0 


85.5 


85.1 


84.6 


14.8 


15 


88.8 


88.2 


87.7 


86.2 


86 7 


86.2 


85.7 


85 2 


84 7 


15 


15.2 


88.9 


88.4 


87 9 


86.4 


86 9 


86 4 


85 9 


85.4 


84.9 


15.2 


15.4 


89.0 


88 5 


88.0 


86.5 


87.0 


86.5 


86.0 


85 6 


85.1 


15.4 


15 6 


89 1 


88.6 


88.1 


86 6 


87.2 


86.7 


86 2 


85 7 


85.2 


15.6 


15 8 


89 3 


88 8 


88.3 


87.8 


87.3 


86.8 


86.3 


85 9 


85.4 


15.8 


16.0 


89 4 


88 9 


88.4 


87.9 


87.4 


87.0 


86.5 


86.0 


85.6 


16.0 


16 2 


89.5 


89.0 


88.5 


88.0 


87.6 


87 1 


86.6 


86.2 


85.7 


16.2 


16 4 


89.6 


89.1 


88 6 


87.2 


87.7 


87 2 


86 8 


86 3 


85.9 


16.4 


16.6 


89 7 


89.2 


88 8 


87.3 


87 8 


87.4 


86.9 


86 5 


86.0 


16.6 


16.8 


89 8 


89.4 


88.9 


87.4 


88.0 


87.5 


87.0 


86 6 


86.2 


16-. 8 


17 


89.9 


89 5 


89 


87.5 


88.1 


87.6 


87.2 


86 7 


86.3 


17.0 



202 



TABLE VI. CON. 



Per Cent. 
Sucrose. 


PER CENT. OF NON-SUCROSE = DEGREE BRIX MINUS PER CENT. 
SUCROSE. 


PerCent 
Sucrose. 


3.8 


2.9 


3.0 


31 


3. a 


33 


34 


3.5 


3 6 


8.0 


74.1 


73.4 


72.7 


72.1 


71.4 


70.8 


70.2 


69.6 


69.0 


8.0 


8.2 


74.5 


73.9 


73.2 


72.6 


71.9 


71.3 


70.7 


70.1 


69.5 


8.2 


8.4 


75.0 


74.3 


73.7 


73.0 


72.4 


71.8 


71.2 


70.6 


70.0 


8.4 


8.6 


75.4 


74.8 


74.1 


73.5 


72.9 


72 3 


71.7 


71.1 


70.5 


8.6 


8.8 


75.9 


75.2 


74 6 


73.9 


73.3 


72.7 


72.1 


71.5 


71.0 


8.8 


9.0 


76.3 


75.6 


75.0 


74.4 


73.8 


73.2 


72 6 


72.0 


71.4 


9.0 


9.2 


76.7 


75.8 


75.4 


74.8 


74.2 


73.6 


73.0 


72.4 


71.9 


9.2 


9.4 


77.0 


76.4 


75.8 


75 2 


74.6 


74.0 


73.4 


72.9 


72.3 


9.4 


9.6 


77.4 


76.8 


76.2 


75.6 


75.0 


74.4 


73.8 


73.3 


72.7 


9.6 


9.8 


77.8 


77.2 


76.6 


76.0 


75.4 


74.8 


74.2 


73.7 


73.1 


9.8 


10.0 


78.1 


77.5 


76.9 


76 3 


75.8 


75.2 


74.6 


74.1 


73.5 


10.0 


10.2 


78.5 


77.9 


77.3 


76 7 


76.1 


75.6 


75 


74.5 


73.9 


10.2 


10.4 


78.8 


78.2 


77.6 


77.0 


76.5 


75.9 


75.4 


74.8 


74.3 


10.4 


10.6 


79.1 


78.5 


77.9 


77.4 


76.8 


76.3 


75.7 


75.2 


74.6 


10.6 


10.8 


79.4 


78.8 


78.3 


77.7 


77.1 


76 6 


76.1 


75.5 


75.0 


10.8 


11.0 


79.7 


79.1 


78.6 


78.0 


77.5 


76.9 


76.4 


75.9 


75.3 


11.0 


11.2 


80 


79.4 


78.9 


78.3 


77.8 


77.2 


76.7 


76.2 


75.7 


11.2 


11.4 


80.3 


79.7 


79.2 


78.6 


78.1 


77 6 


77.0 


76 5 


76.0 


11.4 


11.6 


80.6 


80.0 


79.4 


78.9 


78.4 


77.9 


77.3 


76 8 


76.3 


11.6 


11.8 


80.8 


80.3 


79.7 


79.2 


78.7 


78.1 


77.6 


77.1 


76.6 


11.8 


12.0 


81.1 


80 5 


80.0 


79 5 


78.9 


78.4 


77.9 


77.4 


76.9 


12.0 


12.2 


81.3 


80.8 


80.3 


79.7 


79.2 


78.7 


78.2 


77.7 


77.2 


12.2 


12.4 


81.6 


81.0 


80.5 


80.0 


79.5 


79.0 


78 5 


78.0 


77.5 


12.4 


12.6 


81.8 


81.3 


80.8 


80.3 


79.7 


79.2 


78 8 


78.3 


77.8 


12.6 


12.8 


82.1 


81.5 


81.0 


80.5 


80.0 


79.5 


79.0 


78.5 


78.0 


12.8 


13.0 


82.3 


81.8 


81.2 


80.7 


80.2 


79.8 


79.3 


78.8 


78.3 


13.0 


13.2 


82 5 


82.0 


81.5 


81 


80.5 


80.0 


79.5 


79.0 


78.6 


13.2 


13.4 


82.7 


82.2 


81.7 


81.2 


80.7 


80.2 


79.8 


7. 3 


78.8 


13.4 


13.6 


82.9 


82 4 


81.9 


81.4 


81.0 


80.5 


80.0 


79.5 


79.1 


13.6 


13.8 


83.1 


82.6 


82.1 


81.7 


81.2 


80.7 


80.2 


79.8 


79.3 


13.8 


14.0 


83.3 


82.8 


82.3 


81.9 


81.4 


80.9 


80.5 


80.0 


79.5 


14.0 


14.2 


83.5 


83.0 


82.5 


82.1 


81.6 


81.1 


80.7 


80.2 


79.8 


14.2 


14.4 


83.7 


83.2 


82.7 


82.3 


81.8 


81.4 


80.9 


80.4 


80.0 


14.4 


14.6 


83.9 


83.4 


82.9 


82.5 


82.0 


81.6 


81.1 


80.7 


80.2 


14.6 


14.8 


84.1 


83.6 


83.1 


82.7 


82.2 


81.8 


81 3 


80.9 


80.4 


14.8 


15.0 


84.3 


83.8 


83.3 


82.9 


82.4 


82.0 


81.5 


81.1 


80.6 


15.0 


15.2 


84.4 


84.0 


83.5 


83.1 


82.6 


82.2 


81.7 


81.3 


80.8 


15.2 


15.4 


84.6 


84.2 


83.7 


83.2 


82.8 


82.* 


81.9 


81.5 


81.0 


15.4 


15.6 


84.8 


84.3 


83.9 


83.4 


83.0 


82.5 


82.1 


81.7 


81.2 


15.6 


15.8 


84.9 


84.5 


84.0 


83.6 


83.2 


82.7 


82.3 


81*9 


81.4 


15.8 


16.0 


85.1 


84.7 


84.2 


83.8 


83.3 


82 9 


82.5 


82.0 


81.6 


16.0 


16.2 


85.3 


84.8 


84.4 


83 9 


83.5 


83.1 


82.7 


82.2 


81.8 


16.2 


16.4 


85.4 


84.9 


84.5 


84.1 


83.7 


83.2 


82.8 


82.4 


82.0 


16.4 


16.6 


85.6 


85 1 


84.7 


84.3 


83.8 


83.4 


83.0 


82.6 


82.2 


16.6 


16.8 


85.9 


85.2 


84.8 


84.4 


84 


83.6 83.2 


82.8 


82.4 


16.8 


17.0 


85.9 


85 4 


85.0 


84.6 


84.2 


83.7 83.3 


82.9 


82.5 


17.0 



TABLE VI. CON. 



20 3 



a n 

3 


PER CENT. OF NON-SUCROSE = DEGREE BRIX MINUS PER CENT. 
/ SUCROSE. 


rCent 
icrose. 





3.7 


3,8 


3.9 


4.0 


41 


42 


4.3 4 4 4.5 


ft CO 


8 C 


68.4 


67.8 


67.2 


66.7 


66.1 


65.6 


65.0 64 5 


64. 


8.0 


8". 1 


68.9 


68 3 


67.8 


67.2 


66 7 


66 1 


65 6 65.1 


64 6 


8.2 


8.4 


69 4 


68.8 


68 3 


67 7 


67.2 


66.7 


66.1 65.6 


65. 


8.4 


S.i 


69.9 


69.3 


68 8 


68 3 


67.7 


67 2 


66.7 66.2 


65.6 


8 6 


-8 g 


70 4 


69 8 


69 3 


.68.8 


68.2 


67 7 


67.2 66.7 


66.2 


8.8 


9 C 


70 9 


70.3 


69 8 


69 2 


68 7 


68 2 


67.7 ! 67.2 


66.7 


9.0 


9.2 


71 3 


70.8 


70 2 


69.7 


69.2 


68 7 


68 1 I 67.6 


67.2 


9.2 


9.4 


71 8 


7J.2 


70.7 


70.1 


69.6 


69.1 


68 6 I 68 1 


67 6 


9.4 


9.6 


72.2 


71 6 


71.1 


70 6 


70.1 


69.6 


69.1 68 6 


68 1 


9.6 


9.8 


72 6 


72 1 


71.5 


71.0 


70.5 


70 


69.5 


69.0 


68.5 


9.8 


10.0 


73.0 


72.5 


71.9 


71.4 


70.9 


70.4 


69 9 


69.4 


69.0 


10.0 


10 2 


73.4 


72.9 


72 3 


71 T 8 


71.3 


70.8 


70 3 


69 9 


69.4 


10.2 


10.4 


73.8 


73.2 


72 7 


72 2 


71.7 


71.2 


70 7 


70.3 


69 8 


10.4 


10.6 


74 1 


73.6 


73.1 


72.6 


72.1 


71.6 


71 1 


70.7 


70.2 


10.6 


10 8 


74.5 


74.0 


73 5 


73 


72 5 


72 


71 5 


71 1 


70.6 


10.8 


11.0 


74.8 


74 3 


73.8 


73.3 


72.8 


72.4 


71 9 


71.4 


71.0 


11.0 


11 2 


75.2 


74.7 


74.2 


73.7 


73.2 


72.7 


72 3 


71.8 


71.3 


11.2 


11 4 


75.5 


75.0 


74.5 


74.0 


73.5 


73.1 


72.6 


72.2 


71.7 


11.4 


11 6 


75 8 


75.3 


74.8 


74 4 


73 9 


73.4 


73.0 


72.5 


72.0 


11.6 


11 8 


76 1 


75 6 


75.2 


74 9 


74 2 


73.8 


73.3 


72 8 


72 4 


11.8 


12.0 


76 4 


75.9 


75 5 


75 


74.5 


74 1 


73.6 


73.2 


72.7 


12.0 


12 .2 


76.7 


76 2 


75.8 


75.3 


74 8 


74.4 


73.9 


73.5 


73 1 


12.2 


12.4 


77.0 


76.5 


76.1 


75.6 


75 2 


74 7 


74.3 


73 8 


73.4 


12.4 


12.6 


77.3 


76 8 


76.4 


75 9 


75.4 


75 


74.6 


74.1 


73.7 


12.6 


12.8 


77.6 


77.1 


76.6 


76.2 


75.7 


75 3 


74.9 


74.4 


74.0 


12 8 


13.0 


77.8 


77.4 


76 9 


76.5 


76.0 


75 6 


75.1 


74 7 


74.3 


3.0 


13.2 


78.1 


77.6 


77.2 


76.7 


76 3 


75.9 


75.4 


75 


74 6 


3.2 


13 4 


78 4 


77.9 


77.5 


77 


76.6 


76 1 


75 7 


75 3 


74 9 


3.4 


13.6 


78.6 


78.2 


77 7 


77.3 


76.8 


76.4 


75 


75.6 


75 1 


3.6 


13 8 


78.9 


78.4 


78 


77 5 


77 1 


76 7 


76.2 


75.8 


75.4 


3.8 


14.0 


79 1 


78.7 


78.2 


77.8 


77.3 


76.9 


76.5 


76.1 


75 7 


4.0 


14 2 


79.3 


78.9 


78.5 


78 


77.6 


77.2 


76 8 


76.3 


75.9 


4.2 


14 4 


79 6 


79.1 


78.7 


78 3 


77.8 


77.4 


77.0 


76 6 


76.2 


4.4 


14 6 


79.8 


79.3 


78 9 


78.5 


78 1 


77.6 


77.2 


76 8 


76.4 


4.6 


14:8 


80.0 


79.6 


79.1 


78 7 


78.3 


77.9 


77.5 


77 1 


76 7 


4.8 


15 


80.2 


79 8 


79.4 


78.9 


78.5 


78.1 


77.7 


77 3 


76.9 


5 


15 2 


80'. 4 


80.0 


79.6 


79.2 


78 8 


78.4 


77.9 


77 6 


77.2 


5.2 


15.4 


80.6 


80.2 


79 8 


79 4 


79.0 


78.6 


78.2 


77.8 


77 4 


5.4 


15 6 


80 8 


80 4 


80.0 


79.6 


79.2 


78 8 


78.4 


78 


77.6 


5.6 


15 8 


81.0 


80.6 


80 2 


79.8 


79.4 


79.0 


78.6 


78.2 


77 S 


5.8 


16.0 


81.2 


80.8 


80.4 


80 


79.6 


79.2 


78.8 


78.4 


78 


6.0 


16 2 


81.4 


81.0 


80 6 


80.2 


79 8 


79.4 


79.0 


78.6 


78.3 


6.2 


16 4 


81.6 


81.2 


80.8 


80.4 


80 


79.6 


79 2 


78.8 


78.5 


6.4 


16.6 


81 8 


81 4 


81.0 


80.6 


80.2 


79.8 


79.4 


79.0 


78.7 


6.6 


16.8 


82.0 


81.6 


81 2 


80 8 


80.4 


80.0 


79.6 


79 2 


78.9 


6.8 


17 o 82 1, 


81 7 


81.3 


80.0 


80 6 


80.2 


79 8 


79 4 


78.1 


7.0 



204 



TABLE VII. 

For Determining Per Cent. CaO in Lime with a Normal Acid. 



C. C. Acid. 


Percent. 
CaO. 


C.C Acid. 


Percent. 
CaO. 


r r A^-H Percent. 
1 c. c. Acid, i Ca0 


22.0 


61 6 


24.7 


69.2 


27.4 


76.7 


22.1 


61.9 


27.8 


69.4 


27.5 


77.0 


22.2 


62.2 


24.9 


69.7 


27.6 


77.3 


22.3 


62.4 


25.0 


70.0 


27.7 


77.6 


22.4 


62.7 


25.1 


70.3 


27.8 


77.8 


22 .,5 


63.0 


25.2 


70.6 


27.9 


78.1 


22.6 


63.3 


25 3 


70.8 


28.0 


78.4 


21.1 


63.6 


25.4 


71 1 


28.1 


78.7 


21. 8 


63.8 


25.5 


71.4 


28.2 


79.0 


22.9 


64.1 


25.6 


71.7 


28.3 


79.2 


23.0 


64.4 


25.7 


72.0 


28.4 


79.5 


23.1 


64.7 


25.8 


72.2 


28.5 


79.8 


23.2 


65.0 


25.9 


72 5 


28.6 


80.1 


23.3 


65.2 


26.0 


72.8 


28.7 


80 4 


23.4 


65.5 


26.1 


73.1 


28 8 


80.6 


23.5 


65.8 


26.2 


73 4 


28 9 


80.9 


23.6 


66.1 


26.3 


73.6 


29.0 


81.2 


23.7 


66.4 


26 4 


73.9 


29.1 


81.5 


23.8 


66 6 


26.5 


74.2 


29.2 


81.8 


23 9 


66.9 


26.6 


74.5 


29.3 


82.0 


24.0 


67.2 


26 7 


74.8 


29 4 


82.3 


24.1 


67.5 


26.8 


75.0 


29.5 


82.6 


24.2 


67.8 


26.9 


75.3 


29.6 


82.9 


24.3 


68.0 


27 


75 6 


29 7 


83.2 


24.4 


68.3 


27.1 


75.9 


29.8 


83.4 


24.5 


68.6 


27.2 


76.2 


29.9 


83.7 


24.6 


68.9 


27.3 


76.4 


30.0 


84.0 



205 



TABLE VIII. 

CaO WITH A NORMAL ACID. 



c c. 


Per Cent. 


C. C. 


PerCent. 


C. C 


PerCent. 


of Acid. 


of CaO. 


of Acid. 


of CaO. 


of Acid. 


of CaO. 


1 


2.8 


13 


36.4 


25 


70.0 


2 


5.6 


14 


39.2 


26 


72.8 


3 


8.4 


15 


42.0 


27 


75.6 


4 


12.2 


16 


44.8 


28 


78.4 


5 


14.0 


17 


47.6 


29 


81.2 


6 


16.8 


18 


50.4 


30 


84.0 


7 


19.6 


19 


53.2 


31 


86.8 


8 


22.4 


20 


56.0 


32 


89.6 


9 


25.2 


21 


58.8 


33 


92.4 


10 


28.0 


22 


61.6 


34 


95.2 


11 


30.8 


23 


64.4 


35 


98.0 


12 


33.6 


24 


67.2 


35.7 


100.0 



ADD FOR TENTHS OF A CUBIC CENTIMETER. 

C. C. of Acid. Per Cent, of CaO. 



.28 

.56 

.84 

1.22 

1.40 

1.68 

1.96 

2.24 

2.52 



2o6 TABLE IX. 

COMPARISON OF THERMOMETRIC SCALES. 

CKNTIGRADE AND FAHRENHEIT. 



Centigrade 


Fahrenheit 


Centigrade 


Fahrenheit. || Centigrade 


Fahrenheit. 


100 


212 


53 


o 

127.4 


6 


42.8 


99 


210.2 


52 


125.6 


5 


41 


98 


208.4 


51 


123.8 


4 


39.2 


97 


206.6 


50 


122 


3 


37.4 


96 


204.8 


49 


120.2 


2 


35 6 


95 


203 


48 


118.4 


1 


33 8 


94 


201.2 


47 


116.6 





32 


93 


199.4 


46 


114.8 


1 


30.2 


92 


197.6 


45 


113 


- 2 


28.4 


91 


195.8 


44 


111.2 


3 


26.6 


90 


194 


43 


109.4 


4 


24.8 


89 


192.2 


42 


107.6 


- 5 


23 


88 


190.4 


41 


105 8 


6 


21.2 


87 


188.6 


40 


104 


7 


19.4 


86 


186.8 


39 


102 2 


8 


17.6 


85 


185 


38 


100.4 


- 9 


15.8 


84 


183.2 


37 


98.6 


10 


14 


83 


181.4 


36 


96.8 


-11 


12.2 


82 


179.6 


35 


95 


-12 


10.4 


81 


177.8 


34 


93.2 


13 


8.6 


80 


176 


33 


91.4 


14 


6.8 


79 


174.2 


32 


89.6 


15 


5 


78 


172.4 


31 


87.8 


16 


3.2 


77 


170.6 


30 


86 


17 


1.4 


76 - 


168.8 


29 


84.2 


18 


0.4 


75 


167 


28 


82.4 


19 


2.2 


74 


165.2 


27 


80.6 


20 


4 


73 


163.4 


26 


78.8 


21 


5.8 


72 


161.6 


25 


77 


22 


7.6 


71 


159.8 


24 


75.2 


23 


9.4 


70 


158 


23 


73.4 


24 


11 2 


69 


156.2 


22 


71 6 


25 


13 


68 


154 4 


21 


69.8 


26 


14 8 


67 


152 6 


20 


68 


27 


16.6 


66 


150.8 


19 


66.2 


28 


18.4 


65 


149 


18 


64.4 


29 


20 2 


64 


147.2 


17 


62.6 


30 


22 


63 


145.4 


16 


60 8 


31 


-23.8 


62 


143.6 


15 


59 


-32 


25.6 


61 


141.8 


14 


57.2 


33 


27.4 


60 


140 


13 


55.4 


34 


29.2 


59 


138 2 


12 


53 6 


35 


31 


58 


136.4 


11 


51 8 


36 


32.8 


57 


134.6 


10 


50 


37 


34.6 


56 


132 8 


9 


48.2 


38 


36.4 


55 


131 


8 


46.4 


39 


38 2 


54 


129.2 


7 


44.6 


40 


40 



TABLE IX. CON. 

COMPARISON OF THERMOMETRIC SCALES. 

FAHRENHEIT AND CKNTIGRADE. 



207 



Fahren- 
heit. 


Centi- 
grade 


Fahren 
heit. 


Centi- 
grade. 


Fahren- 
heit. 


Centi- 
grade . 


Fahren- 
heit. 


Centi- 
grade. 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


212 


100 


165 


73.89 


118 


47.78 


71 


21.67 


211 


99 44 


164 


73.33 


117 


47.22 


70 


21.11 


210 


98.99 


163 


72.78 


116 


46.67 


69 


20.55 


209 


98.33 


162 


72.22 


115 


46 11 


68 


20 


208 


97.78 


161 


71.67 


114 


45.55 


67 


19.44 


207 


97.22 


160 


71.11 


113 


45 


66 


18.89 


206 


96.67 


159 


70.55 


112 


44.44 


65 


18 33 


205 


96.11 


158 


70 


111 


43.89 


64 


17.78 


204 


95.55 


157 


69.44 


110 


43.33 


63 


17.22 


203 


95 


156 


68.89 


109 


42.78 


62 


16 67 


202 


94.44 


155 


68.33 


108 


42.22 


61 


16.11 


201 


93.89 


154 


67.78 


107 


41.67 


60 


15.55 


200 


93.33 


153 


67.22 


106 


41.11 


59 


15 


199 


92.78 


152 


66.67 


105 


40.55 


58 


14.44 


198 


92.22 


151 


66.11 


104 


40 


57 


13.89 


197 


91.67 


150 


65.55 


103 


39.44 


56 


13.33 


196 


91.11 


149 


65 


102 


38.89 


55 


12.78 


195 


90.55 


148 


64.44 


101 


38.33 


54 


12.22 


194 


90 


147 


63.89 


100 


37.78 


53 


11 67 


193 


89.44 


146 


63.33 


99 


37.22 


52 


11.11 


192 


88.89 


145 


62.78 


98 


36.67 


51 


10.55 


191 


88.33 


144 


62.22 


97 


36.11 


50 


10 


190 


87.78 


143 


61.67 


96 


35.55 


49 


9.44 


189 


87.22 


142 


61.11 


95 


35 


48 


8.89 


188 


86.67 


141 


60.55 


94 


34.44 


47 


8.33 


187 


86.11 


140 


60 


93 


33.89 


46 


7.78 


- 186 


85 55 


139 


59.44 


92 


33.33 


45 


7.22 


185 


85 


138 


58.89 


91 


32.78 


44 


6.67 


184 


84.44 


137 


58.33 


90 ' 


32.22 


43 


6.11 


183 


83 89 


136 


57.78 


89 


31.67 


42 


5 55 


182 


83 33 


135 


57 . 22 


88 


31.11 


41 


5 


181 


82.78 


134 


56.67 


87 


30.55 


40 


4.44 


180 


82 22 


133 


56.11 


86 


30 


39 


3.89 


179 


81 67 


132 


55.55 


85 


29.44 


38 


3.33 


178 


81.11 


131 


55 


84 


28.89 


37 


2.78 


177 


80 55 


130 


54.44 


83 


28.33 


36 


2.22 


176 


80 


129 


53.89 


82 


27.78 


35 


1.67 


175 


79.44 


128 


53.33 


81 


27.22 


34 


1.11 


174 


78.89 


127 


52.78 


80 


26.67 






173 


78.33 


126 


52.22 


79 


26.11 






172 


77.78 


125 


51.67 


78 


25.55 






171 


77.22 


124 


51.11 


77 


25 






170 


76.67 


123 


50.55 


76 


24.44 






169 


76.11 


122 


50 


75 


23.89 






168 


75.55 


121 


49.44 


74 


23.33 






167 


75 


120 


48 89 


73 


22.78 






166 


74.44 


119 


48.33 


72 


22.22 







208 



TABLE X. 

PARTIAL LIST OF ATOMIC WEIGHTS. (REMSEN.) 



NAME. 


Symbol. 


Atomic 
Weight. 


NAME. 


Symbol. 


Atomic 
Weight. 


Aluminum .. . 


Al. 


27.04 


Lead 


Pb. 


206.4 


Antimony . . . 


Sb. 


119.6 


Lithium . . . 


Li. 


7.01 


Arsenic 


As. 


74.9 














Magnesium . . 


Mg. 


23.94 


Barium 


Ba. 


136.9 


Manganese . . 


Mn. 


"54.8 


Bismuth 


Bi. 


207.3 


Mercury 


Her 


199.8 


Boron 


B. 


10*9 


Molybdenum 


*o 

Mo. 


95.9 


Bromine . , . 


Br. 


79.76 














Nickel 


Ni. 


58.56 


Cadmium .... 


Cd. 


111.7 


Nitrogen .... 


N. 


14.01 


Calcium 


Ca. 


39.9! 








Carbon 


C. 


11.97 


Oxygen 


O 


15.96 


Chlorine. . . . 
Chromium . . . 
Cobalt 
Copper 


Cl. 
Cr. 
Co. 
Cu. 


35.37 
52.45 
58.74 
63.18 


Phosphorus . . 
Platinum .... 
Potassium . . 


P. 
Pt. 
K. 


30.96 
194.3 

39.03 


Fluorine 


F. 


19.06 


Silicon 
Silver 


Si. 
Ag- 


'28.1 
107.66 


Gold 


Au. 


196.7 


Sodium .... 


Na. 


23.0 








Strontium . . . 


Sr. 


87.3 


Hydrogen . . . 


H. 


1. 


Sulphur 


S. 


31.98 


Iodine 


I. 


126.54 


Tin 


Sn. 


117.4 


Iridium ..... 


Ir. 


192.5 








Iron . 


Fe. 


55.88 


Uranium .... 


U. 


239.8 








Zinc 


Zn. 


65.1 




209 



TABLE XI. 

FACTORS USED IN QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS. 



FOUND. 


SOUGHT. 


iMulti- 
plyBy 




Nitrogen N 


.8236 
.3089 
.5832 
.3431 
.1374 
1.7856 
2.4294 
.5600 
.4400 
. 4116 
.2356 
2 . 2730 
1 . 9091 
2.4117 
2.4689 
2.1035 
1 . 6503 
.7983 

.4762 
2.1000 
3.0015' 

.7565 
,3602 
.6396 

. :,^2 
.6668 

2.1827 

2 . 9903 
1.9062 
1 . 4668 
.7913 
1 . 5024 
2.2645 
.2473 


Barium Sulphate .... BaSO 4 . . . 
Barium Sulphate . . . .BaSO 4 . . . 
Barium Sulphate BaSO 4 . . . 
Barium Sulphate .... BaSO 4 
Calcium Oxide . ... CaO 


Calcium Sulphide CaS . . . 
Calcium Sulphate CaSO 4 . 
Sulphuric Anhydride. .SO 3 . . 
Sulphur S 


Calcium Carbonate . . .CaCO 3 .. 
Calcium Sulphate .. . CaSO 4 . 
Calcium Oxide . ..CaO... 


Calcium Oxide CaO 
Calcium Carbonate. .CaCO 3 .. 
Calcium Carbonate. .CaCO 3 .. 
Calcium Sulphate CaSO 4 . . . 
CalciuofSulphate CaSO 4 . . . 
Carbon Dioxide .... CO 2 . . . 
Carbon Dioxide CO2 


Carbon Dioxide CO 2 . 
Calcium Oxide CaO . . 
Sulphur S 
Calcium Carbonate CaCO 3 . 
Magnesium Carbonate. MgCO 3 
Sodium Carbonate Na 2 CO 3 
Potassium Carbonate. . K 2 CO 3 . 
Potassium Chloride . . .KC1.. . . 
Sodium Chloride NaCl . . 
Copper Cu 


Carbon Dioxide COa .... 


Carbon Dioxide CO 2 .... 
Chlorine Cl 


Chlorine .. ..Cl 


Copper Oxide CuO .. 


Magnesium Carbon- 
ate . . MgCOj. . 


Magnesium Oxide ....MgO .. 
Magnesium Carbonate. MgCO 3 
Magnesium Sulphate. .MgSO 4 

2 Magnesium Carbonate 
. 2MgCO7 


Magnesium Oxide . . .MgO . . . 
Magnesium Oxide. . .MgO . . . 

Magnesium P y r o - 
phosphate Mg 2 P 2 O7 
Magnesium P y r o - 
phosphate Mg 2 P 2 Oy 
Magnesium P y r o - 
phosphate. . . Mg 2 P 2 Oy 


2 Magnesium Oxide . . .2MgO . 
Phosphoric Anhydride . 


Magnesium Sulphate. MgSO 4 .. 
Magnesium Sulphate MgSO4... 
Phosphoric A n h y - 
dride PaO 5 


Magnesium Oxide MgO . . 
Sulphuric Anhydride. .SO 2 . . . . 

Calcium Phosphate CaP 2 Og 

2 Potassium Phosphate 2K 3 PO 4 
Potassium Chloride . . .KC1 . . . 
Potassium Carbonate. .K 2 CO 3 . 
Potassium Chloride . . .KC1 . . . 
2 Potassium Phosphate 2K 3 PO 4 
Potassium Sulphate . . .K2SO 4 .. 
Chlorine Cl 


Phosphoric A n h y - 
dride PaO 5 


Potassium K 
Potassium Oxide .... K 2 O 
Potassium Oxide K 2 O 
3 Potassium Oxide.. 3K 2 O ... 
Potassium Oxide K 2 O ... 
Silver Chloride AgCl . . 



2IO 



TABLE XI. CON. 



FOUND. 



SOUGHT. 



Multi- 
ply By 



Sodium Na .... 

Sodium Na 

Sodium Na 2 

.Sodium Carbonate. .Na 2 CO 3 
Sodium Carbonate 
Sodium Chloride . 
Sodium Chloride . 
Sodium Chloride . 
Sodium Oxide . . . 
Sodium Oxide . . 
Sodium Sulphate . 
Sodium Sulphate . 
Sodium Sulphate . 

Sulphuric Anhydride. SO 3 

Sulphuric Anhydride. SO 3 

Sulphuric Anhydride. SO 3 

Sulphuric Anhydride SO 3 



.Na 2 CO 3 
.NaCl.. . 
.NaCl... 
.NaCl... 
.Na 2 .. 
.Na 2 O .. 
.Na 2 SO 4 . 
.Na 2 SO 4 . 
Na 2 SO 4 . 



Sodium Chloride . . . .NaCl. . . 
Sodium Carbonate. Na 2 CO 3 

Sodium Sulphate Na 2 SO 4 

Carbon Dioxide CO 2 . . . 

Oxygen O 

hlorine Cl 

Sodium Na .... 

Sodium Oxide Na 2 O 

Sodium Carbonate. . .Na 2 CO 3 

Sodium Sulphate Na 2 SO 4 

Sodium Na .... 

Sulphuric Anhydride. SO 3 . . . 

Dxygen O . 

Calcium Sulphate ...CaSO 4 . 
Magnesium Sulphate MgSO 4 . 
Potassium Sulphate. . K 2 SO 4 . 
Sodium Sulphate . . . .Na 2 SO 4 



2.5378 

2.3010 

3.0830 

.4146 

.1508 

.6060 

.3940 

.2906 

1.7067 

2 2889 

.3244 

.5631 

.1125 

1.6996 

.4996 

2.1773 

1.7759 



211 



2 
H*Mi-'H*oooppp ! 



^-4^-t\J>-'^DOOO>4^C^*-*O O 



^OXMO^Cn^.C^ts)!-' 

O> OJ U ls> W N> Is) tO K) Is) 

^C>JI '^GOO^. CnC/JMO O 

*vi-*CnvOC>J < <It-*C/iOC>J 3 

K) W N) 10 W ^) ts> W 10 tsJ 



O^ O -^ 00 Is) ^ O -P-' OC- t\) ^ t3 



OvOOOMO^Cn-^-C/JlsJM 

O^a^^ON^CnCnaiCnCn 

00 to O^ O 4^- 00 Is) O O 4^ 




Cn ^ C>J ^ M 



. 

M O 



OOX ' 



- 

ts)aNO-^Gois)ON 



S- 2 



nil 

B | 8| 
2. 3 o ft 

5 li 
&j" 

H;.! 

P 






la 



O 5' S r- o 

a S- 2 " -o 

03 - o a o 



g * R 

5 p ^ > 
S I 2 3 

sl 



s ' 

o S 



S S |S S 

O r* g 1 J O 

a r 

co g o- 5- E 



00 

m 

X 



II; I 

*""" P* M 



B 2- | 

r*- CU 

?;> 



B S B 



212 



TABLE XII. CON. 





*"| "<frT}-Tj-Tl-Tj-Tl-COcOCOCOCO 



cOcOcorOcO 

rt Cl *0 ^ uj vo l> 00 



H M ' 



rH M CO TJ- 10 MD1> X ON C 



O ON X vO U2 

S^'sa " 



X'l^ iO * 
ON ON ON ON 




iH O 



i^. ro a\ 

iO ON C<J 



C-^ 1^* rO ON 
O CO !> ^H ^~ 00 TH 
. "^ O LO rH 'sO rH l>. 



r-t LO O T*- ON 



rH O ON 

^'^s'a'a's's's's's 



ON 00 

<-O r-l t^ CO ON i-O rH t^ CO ON 
CO l^ O * l^ r-t IO CO fN IO 
lOO'vDr-t'OrNli-^fVJQOcO 



TABLE XII. CON. 



213 



vO-^^ 
CM CM s . 



^ 
OC 



tO tO tO M h* M 

CM 10 M 4- h- 00 CM OJ ,~ 

^7 o M IO 4>-CN M ^O K* IO C> 

vO O NJ \> CM W GO CM -* 00 3 



l\J tsi M tO M M M 

00 C^ OJ O "'I 4> > 'v^ 
^7 C ta,4^ CM M \O O 



^ 
CM W 

O'v 2 



H- 'O^MGNH 'C^ O^I *ff\ 

CM CM ^ O^ ^1 ^1 00 00 'O '^C 

4 \O 4*. \O 

O 



'O ^ Cu O *^1 CM l\> 'O ON C*J ' ^ 

i * CJ CM G\ 00 O >- CK> CM ^i 00 &^ 

-C C^ C>J O ^ tJf ^O CM ts> 00 CM 



M O CM O CM O CM O CM 






4-* CN 00 vO M OJ 

X 4* M I 4- O ^T OJ 

&8SQ$~8 



M O 



s ' 4^ M OC CM Is) \D ^-1 4*- M 
^1 O O K> 4^ tn ^7 \O O KJ -^ 
s . CM O O^ tOAO CM K> 00 CM t- 



10 M K> -1 Is) M IN> ^7 10 ^7 

O O M M IsJ N) Co OJ 4>- 4^ 



^-7 4^ i ' 00 C/i CM O "^1 4^- ' 
Is) OJ CM M GO O ts> GJ CM ^7 
l- 00 4^ H* ^7 4* O M OJ O 



CM O CM O C/ 

CMCMON^^. 



i O CM O CM 



OJtOt\>tO*-'>-*h-'h- 

OJ O O 1 ' K) ^O CM tO 00, CM M 00 

OJ>-O4'VO4^\O4>-'vO4>-^O4i- 
^OOO-'t-'tOtOOJOJ4^4^ 



O ^7 4^- K> v ON OJ O M CM IO 



CM IO o 
h-'N> 2, 



CMts)^OO\C>Jl ' 




OJ4^ 



cK 



vO4-O 
4^ ^7 - 



tO tO (- 1 *->- l- 

tOOOO^OJ>-'VO<7CMtO ^j 

O O ^O ^ 00 00 ^*7 ^^7 *^7 O^ O^ o" 

MtOOOOJ\O4-'vOCMO<^t-' tn 
X tO O" O OJ 



00 
Cn 



- - 

C*JOOOO^4^tOvO<IOiCU-' {*, 

1 'vOMCMCtJMvO" s -7CMCJh- 52 

4i-4i.C>JC>JO^'tOtOt-'t-OO 2 

ocMoa^t-'ONto 

M t- Cn \O OJ 



- 
I-O^tO 

O^ O 



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214 



TABLE XII. CON. 



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TABLE XII. CON. 



215 



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216 



TABLE XII. CON. 



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TABLE XII. CON. 



217 



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TABLE XII. CON. 



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TABLE XII. CON. 



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INDEX. 



A. 

Acetate of Lead, 166. 
Acetic Acid Bottles, 41. 
Acid, Special, 168. 
Acids, Crude, 160. 
Air-Funnel, 67. 
Alcohol Digest, 60. 
Alcohol Extraction, 58. 
Alkalimeter, Peffer's, 97. 
Alkalinities, 74. 
Alumina Cream, 166. 
Ammonia, Anhydrous, 156. 
Ammonium Citrate Solution, 171 
Analysis by Weight, 50. 
Apparatus, Geissler's, 97. 
Apparatus, Orsat's, 128. 
Apparatus, Scheibler's, 122. 
Ash of Syrup or Massecuite, 145- 
150. 

B 

Balling Saccharometer, 20. 

Baryta Solution, 172. 

Baur and Portius, 79. 

Beakers, 28, 90. 

Baume Hydrometer for Liquids 

Lighter than Water, 20, 115. 
Baume Hydrometers, 20. 
Beets, 55-61. 
Beet Seed, 151. 
Boneblack, 119-128. 
Brix Saccharometer, 20. 
Brysselbout, E. E., 52. 
Burettes, 41, 94. 
Burette, Franke's Gas, 131. 



Castor Oil, 157. 
Chimney Gases, 128-133. 
Clarification, 43. 
CO 2 in Saturation Gas, 75. 
Coal, 114. 
Cochineal, 169. 
Cocoanut Oil, 157. 
Coefficient, the Value, 52. 
Coefficient of Purity (see Quo- 
tient of Purity.) 
Coke, 115. 
Cossettes, 62. 
Crucibles, 92. 
Crucible Tongs, 94. 
Crude Acids, 160. 
Cylinders, 17, 94 



D. 

Dessicators, 92. 
Diffusion Juice, 64. 
Dishes, 92, 94. 
Dropping Bottles, 25. 
Drying Over, 91. 
Dry Substance 22. 



E. 

Ether Bottles, 25. 
Erdmann's Floats, 41. 
Evaporation Dishes, 94. 



222 



INDEX. 



F. 

Faurot, Henry, 156. 

Fehling's Solution, 170. 

Fertilizers, 134-140. 

Fibre in Beet, 60. 

Filling Flasks, 45. 

Filter Paper, 27, 91. 

Filter Press Cakes (See Lime 

Cakes). 

Flash Test ot Oils, 117, 159. 
Flasks for Specific Gravity, 19. 
Flasks for Sugar Analysis, 25. 
Flasks, Volumetric, 94. 
Floats, Erdmann's, 41. 
Fluxes, 160. 

Franke'sGas Burette, 131. 
Fresenius, C. R., 40. 108, 115. 
Fuel Oil, 115-118. 
Funnels (Air), for Syrups, 67. 
Funnels, 27, 90. 

Q. 

Gases, Chimney, 128-133. 
Geissler's Apparatus, 97. 
Gird, W. K., 47. 
Glass, Powdered, 172. 
Glass Rods, 90. 
Gravimeter, 47. 

H. 

Hydrometers, 20, 115. 
Hydrochloric Acid, Normal, 167. 



Indicator Bottles, 42. 
Invert Sugar, 86. 



J. 

Juices, thick, 66. 
Juices, thin, 66. 

K. 

Kiehle Machine, 57, 62. 
Kipp's Apparatus, 42. 
Kissel, 102. 
"Known Sugar " Solutions, 35. 

L. 

Lamps, 93. 
Lampstands, 94. 
Lard Oil, 157. 
Lead Acetate, 166. 
Lead Bottles, 40. 
Lime, 72, 113. 
Lime Cakes, 64. 
Lime Powder, 78. 
Lime, Refuse, 141-144. 
Lime, Slacking Test of, 79. 
Limestone, 109-113. 
Linseed Oil, 158. 
Lktnus Paper, 169. 
Litmus Solution, 169. 

M. 

Magnesia Mixture, 171. 
Massecuite Ash, 145-150. 
Massecuites, 68. 
Meniscus, 25. 
Milk of Lime, 73. 
Mohr's Pinchcocks, 42. 
Moisture Determination, 23. 
Molasses Saccharate, 80 
Molasses Solution, 81. 
Molybdic Solution, 171. 
Mortars, 65, 94. 



INDEX. 



223 



N. 

Nasmyth, 159. 
Nealsfoot Oil, 158. 
Nicol's Prism, 29. 
Nitric Acid, Normal, 168. 
Non-Normal Analysis, 51. 
Normal Hydrochloric Acid, 167. 
Normal Nitric Acid, 168. 
Normal Sodium Solution, 167. 
Normal Sulphuric Acid, 167. 

O. 

Oil, Fuel, 115-118. 
Oils, Lubricating, 157-161. 
Olive Oil, 158. 
Orsat's Apparatus, 128. 

P. 

Peffer's Alkalimeter, 97. 

Phenol, 168 

Pinchcocks, 42. 

Pipettes, 94. 

-Pipette Solution, 171. 

Pipettes, Sucrose, 23. 

Pipette Test, 47. 

Pipette, Testinga, 26. 

Polariscopes, 28-38 

Portius, Baur and, 79. 

Powdered Glass or Sand, 172. 

Preparation of Samples, 43. 

Pulp, Pressed, 63. 

Pulp, Wet, 62. 

Purity, Quotient of, 51. 

Pycnometers, 18. 

Q. 

Quotient of Purity, 51. 
Quotient, Saline, 52. 



Raffinose, 85. 
Rapeseed Oil, 158. 
Reagents, 166-172. 
Refuse Lime, 141-144. 
Rendetnent, 52. 
Rieckes, H., 73. 
Rosolic Acid, 169. 
Rust Joints, 160. 



Saccharometers, 20. 

Saccharate Milk, 81. 

Saccharate, Molasses, 80. 

Saccharate of Lime, 78. 

Saline Quotient, 52. 

Samples, Preparation of, 43. 

Sand, 172. 

Saturation Gas, 75. 

Scales, 39. 

Scheibler's Apparatus, 122. 

Scheibler's Method for Fibre in 

Beet, 61. 

Sickel-Soxhlet Apparatus, 58. 
Silver Nitrate, 170, 
Siphon Bottle, 40. 
Slacking Test of Lime, 79. 
Soda, 160. 

Sodium, Normal, 167. 
Soxhlet's Method for Invert 

Sugar, 87. 
Special Acid, 168. 
Specific Gravity, 18. 
Spencer, G. L., 45, 166. 
Stillman, 99. 
Stoves, 93. 
Sucrose, Correct Percentage of, 

82. 



.' 



224 



INDEX. 



s. 

Sucrose in Presence of Invert 

Sugar, 82. 
Sucrose in Presence of Raffinose, 

85. 

Sucrose Pipettes, 23. 
Sugar, 68. 
Sulphur, 155. 

Sulphuric Acid, Normal, 167. 
Syrup Ash, 145-150. 
Syrups, 67. 
Sweet Waters, 66. 

T. 

Tallow, 158. 

Test Tube with Foot, 17. 
Thermometers, 42. 
Thin Juices, 66. 
T-Tube for Burettes, 41. 
Tucker,J. H., 45, 52, 125. 
Turck, E., 57. 
Turmeric Paper, 170. 



V. 

Value Coefficient, 52. 
Varner, J. E., 28. 
Volumetric Method, 45. 

W. 

Wanklyn, 97, 102. 
Washing Bottle, 41, 94. 
Waste Water, 63 
Waste Water, Steffens, 80. 
Water Analysis, 95-108. 
Water Baths, 94. 
Water Bottles, 40. 
Water Digest, 57. 
Westphal Balance, 18. 
Wet Pulp, 63. 




H. T. OXNARD, W. BflUR, 

President. Executive Officer and 

Consulting Eogineer. 

Oxnard Construction Co, 



CONSTRUCTORS AND BUILDERS 
OF COMPLETE 




CONSULTING ENGINEERS, 
CHEMISTS AND AGRICULTURISTS 



Office 32 Na88au Street, New York City. 



THIS Company will assist in every way the development of the 
Sugar Industry in this country. It has various departments, 
such as an Agricultural Department and a Construction Depart- 
ment. These departments will thoroughly investigate questions 
of climate and soil, and will give directions in growing beets, cane, 
etc. Testing beets, water, soil and all supplies necessary for the 
process of sugar making. The investigations will be made by expert 
agriculturists, familiar with the raising of sugar plants in this 
country. The Construction Department will undertake the entire 
building of factories, complete in every respect, and is prepared to 
guarantee their capacity. This Company is able to undertake the 
full equipment of a newly built factory, with the necessary officers 
and men, and run the factory, if desired, for the first year. 



EIMER & AMEND 



205-211 THIRD AVENUE, NEW YORK CITY, 



IMPORTERS AND MANUFACTURERS OF 



Physical Apparatus 

Strictfy Chemicaffy Pure (hemicafs and Acids, 



Special Attention given to the fitting out of Laboratories 
for Sugar Analysis. 



AGENTS FOR 

SCHMIDT & HAENSCH'S POLAR/SCOPES, 
GREINER & FRIEDRICH'S GERMAN GLASSWARE, 
SCHLEICHER & SCHUELL'S C. P. FILTER PAPERS, 
FINEST ANALYTICAL BALANCES AND WEIGHTS, 
SCHEIBLER'S ALKALIMETER AND HYDROMETERS, 
DESMOUTIS HAMMERED PLATINUM, 
CRUCIBLES AND DISHES. 



We carry a complete stock of Beakers, Flasks, Burettes, Pipettes, 
Sucrose Pipettes, Saccharometers, Cylinders, Lamps, Stoves, and 
all supplies needed for testing sugars Any apparatus or chemical 
mentioned in "BEET SUGAR ANALYSIS" can be obtained from us 
at the lowest price. 

EIMER & AMEND, New York. 



Guild & Garrison 

BHOOKLg/M, /S. g. 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



Special Pumping Machinery 

FOR BEET SUGflR FACTORIES 



Vacuum Pumps, 

Carbonic Acid Blowers, 

Milk of Lime Pumps, 

Filter Press Pumps, 

* 

Air Compressors, 

Boiler Feed Pumps, 

Liquor and Syrup Pumps, 

Water Pumps, etc. 




The 

Link-Belt 
MachineryCo. 

EnQineers, Founders, Machinists 



PRINCIPAL OFFICE AND WORKS: 

39th St. and Stewart flve. Chicago, U. S. ft. 

SOUTHERN DEPARTMENT: 

316-318 St, Charles Street New Orleans, La. 



Modern Methods 

As applied to the handling" of Sugar Cane and its pro- 
ducts, employing" the Kwart Detachable lyink- 
Belting, Dodge and Special Carrier Chains. 



Traveling Cane Hoists, Juice Strainers, Bagasse Feeders, 
Sugar Shakers, etc. 



Shafting, Pulleys, Gearing, Rope Sheaves, Friction 
Clutches, etc. 



California cotton 
Mills 60, 

Office and Works, East Oakland, Gal. 

Manufacturers of all kinds of 

Cotton and Jute Fabrics 

From the Raw Material. 



ALSO MANUFACTURE ALL KINDS OF 



Press, Strainer and Filter Glottis 

SPECIALLY SUITED FOR 

Beet Sugar Factories and Refineries. 



Correspondence solicited, and all enquiries shall have 
prompt and careful attention. 

ADDRESS AS ABOVE. 



KLEI/MWA/MZLEBE/M ORIGINAL 

Beet Seed 

The Preferred Seed used by all of the American 
Beet Sugar Factories, 



GROWN BY THE 



SUGAR FACTORY KLEINWANZLEBEN, GERMANY. 

Represented in the United States by 

MEYER & RAAPKE, Omaha, /Neb. 

ALBERT W. WALBURN, MAGNUS SWENSON, 

PRESIDENT AND TREASURER. SECRETARY AND MANAGER. 

WALBUR/N=SWENSO/N CO. 

Engineers, Founders and Machinists 



BUILDERS OF THE MOST 
IMPROVED 



Beet Sugar Machinery 



COMPLETE BEET SUGAR PLANTS and 
CENTRAL FACTORIES A SPECIALTY 



Works : General Office : 

Chicago Heights 944 Monadnock Block, Chicago 



KEYSTONE 



Saw, Tool, Steel and File Works 




HENRY DISSTON & SONS 




PHILADELPHIA, PEN/MA. 
U. S. A. 



California Chemical Works 



fllso Successor to GOLDEN CITY CflEMICflL WORKS 



Manufacture 




ALSO CHEMICALLY PURE ACIDS 
OF ALL KINDS 



Reynolds' Excelsior Solderine ; Sulphur Crude, 

Sublimed, Powdered, Roll, Refined, and Virgin 

Rock; Nitrate of Soda, Carbon Bi-sulphide, 

Iron Wine Ethers and other 

Chemicals. 



Write us for price list. 

California Chemical Works 

JOHN REYNOLDS, Prop. 

San Bruno Road and 27th St. San Francisco, Gal. 

TELEPHONE, MISSION 3O 



Revere Rubber Co. 



MANUFACTURERS OF 
ALL KINDS OF . 



Rubber Goods for Beet Sugar 
Factories 

We have a complete outfit of moulds for making- 
Evaporator Reheater, larg-e and Small Filter Rings of 
all kinds. Ring's for Calorisators, Dantzenburg- Ring's, 
Diffusion Ring's, Battery Gaskets, Air Pump Gaskets, 
Strainer Ring's, Gaskets for Campbell & Zell Boilers. 
Valves for all kinds of Pumps, including- Carbonic Acid 
Pumps, Diffusion and Filter Presses, Steffins' Cooler. 
Rectangular and Square Packing- for Manholes and 
Doors, and Packing's for Diffusion, Vacuum Pans, and 
Coolers, etc. 

Also manufacturers of a full line of Belting- and 
Hose of all kinds and descriptions. 

Principal offices for distribution, 

CHICAGO and 
SA/\ FRANCISCO 

Also stores at New York, Holjoke, Philadelphia, Balti- 
more, Buffalo, Pittsburg-, Cincinnati, Cleveland, 
Minneapolis, St. Louis, New Orleans, Leicester, 
Eng. ; London and Paris. 

HOME OFFICE, BOSTON. FACTORY AT CHELSEA, MASS. 



ROBERT DEELEY & GO. 

r Foot ot West 32nd St.. New York a 



Engineers, Founders 

and Machinists 



Manufacturers of Improved Sugar Machinery 
for Plantations and Refineries. 



DUBE'S PATENT GREEN BAGASSE BURNER. 



Vacuum Pans, Double and Triple Effects, Cane 
Mills, Centrifugals, Defecators, Clarifiers, 
Sugar Wagons, Steam Engines., 
Boilers, Engineers' Sup- 
plies, Etc. 



COMPLETE PLA/NITS A SPECIALTY. 



Schaffer & Budenbcrg 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



PRESSURE GflUGES 



Thermometers, Eue Glasses, Surup Testers, 

Butter Gups and other Vacuum 

Pan Appliances 



STEflM TRflPS.REDUGING VftLVES 

Thompson Steam Engine Indicators 




Water Gauges, Brass Gocks and 
Valves, etc. 



WORKS: BROOKLYN, /N. Y, 



SALESROOMS : 

No. 15 W. Lake St., No. 66 John St., 

Chicago. New York. 



HAROLD P. DYER EDWARD F. DYER E. H. DYER 

E, H. DYER & COMPANY ' 

Engineers, Chemists and 
Agricufturists 



MANUFACTURERS OF MACHINERY 




A SPECIALTY 

WE built the Standard, Lehi and Los Alamitos beet 
sugar factories. We are prepared to build complete 
Beet Sug-ar Plants, Factories and Refineries from founda- 
tions up. Machinery, Building's, Water Systems, Rail- 
roads, all and every part that is required for a complete 
plant ; furnish all the technical, skilled and unskilled 
employees to operate the plant for any leng'th of time, 
and to educate the owners how to operate them success- 
fully. Expert services furnished. Correspondence 
solicited. Address 

E, H. DYER 8 COMPANY, 

Cor. Lake and Kirtland Sts. CLEVELAND, OHIO. 



THE 



Kifby Manufacturing Company 

POUNDERS 

:., AND MACHINISTS 

* 



New York Office. 

144 Times Building 



CLEVELAND, OHIO 




BUILDERS Of 



(ompfete Winery for Beet Cane and 
Gfuco^e Suoarfiouses and Refineries 



The Risdon Iron Works 



OFFICE AND WORKS, SAN FRANCISCO 



DESIGNERS 



ENGINEERS 




For Complete Machinery for Beet, 
Cane and Glucose Factories 



OF ILL 



Marsh Steam Pumps 



FOR 



Sugar House Work 




Minimum 

of 

Weig-ht, 

Wear 

and 

Waste 



Patent Self-Governing- Steam Valve. 

Patent Easy Seating- Water Valves. 

No Outside Valve Gear. 



DRY VACUUM PUMPS, 

SWEET WATER PUMPS, 

FILTER PRESS PUMPS, 

CONDENSATION PUMPS, 

BOILER FEED PUMPS, 

MANUFACTURED BY 

The Battle Creek Steam Pump Co. 

BATTLE CREEK, MICH. 

Write for Catalogue. 



BECAUSE IT 
WILL LAST A 

YEAR. 



i^ Cheaper than Rubber! 

Guaranteed to stani any Pressnre, Gaskets Sent on 30 Days Trial is Our Proof. 
GUILLOTT METALLIC GASKET CO.. 



CHICAGO, ILL. 



Manufacturers ot 

METAL 

in allStyles and Plzee of Manhole, 
HandhoJe, Flange and Union Gaskets. 

GASKETS 

for Cylinder Heads. Heaters and Lard 
Tanks from 1 to 100 in. inside diam. 

GASKETS 

for Heine Boiler Tubes, Campbell 

amd Zell, and Standard Boiier Hand 

Holes, Stirling Boiler Manholes. 



ICE MACHINE BASKETS. 

For Sale by all Dealers. 




GiisUrechtBiitchers'SiipplyCo. 

I2th AND PASS AVE., ST. LOUIS, MO. 

HAND AND POWER .... 

MEAT GUTTERS AND CHOPPERS 

of all kinds. Machines especially adapted for the pre- 
paration of samples for 

PULP, GOSSETTE AND BEET ANALYSIS 

Our improved power draw-cut choppers give samples fine 
enoug-h for the most accurate water and alcohol 
dig-ests. Order an Enterprise Hand Chopper for 
pulp samples. Send for Catalogue. 

BUS V. BRECHT BUTCHERS' SUPPLY GO. 



The Audubon Sugar School, 
Louisiana State University, 
Agricultural and Mechanical College, 

luccessfully conducted for several years by Dr. Wm. C. Stubbs at 
he Sugar Experiment Station, Audubon Park, New Orleans, has 
ieen removed to the University at Baton Rouge. 

Dr. Stubbs, Professor of Agriculture in the University and 
Mrector of its Experiment Stations, will continue in charge of the 
>ugar School, and conduct it on a more extensive scale. 

Its aim is to make "Sugar Experts" men who can intelligently 
;row cane, plan and erect a sugar house, run it as engineer or sugar- 
naker, and take the products, either of field or sugar house, to the 
aboratory and subject them to accurate analysis. 

Regular Course of four years, embraces instruction in the 
Growing of Cane, Beets and Sorghum; in the Designing, Construc- 
iou and Operation of Sugar Houses; in the Practical Manipulation 
f Sugar, and in the Chemistry of the products. It leads to 
;raduation. 

Irregular Course is designed to meet the wants of Sugar- 
makers, Engineers or Planters who have not the time to take the 
egular course, but who wish a knowledge of the principals upon 
yhich their practical work is done. Such students may enter the 
chool at any time, and take such studies as they may elect. 

Session 1897-'93 begins September 15, 1897, and closes June 
.5, 1898. * 

THOMAS D. BOYD, L,L. D., President. 

JOHN H. MURPHY 



-MANUFACTURER OF 



SUGAR MACHINERY 

633 TO 643 MAGAZINE ST., NEW.ORLEANS, LA. 

Vacuum Pans, to boil with direct or exhaust steam; Double and 
'riple Effects, Evaporators and Clarifiers, Strike Pans, Sugar 
Vagons, Chimneys and Breechings; Syrup, Juice and Molasses 
'anks, Boilers and Engines. 

Sole Agent for Louisiana and Texas for West Point Foundry 
mproved Hepworth Centrifugals, the Eclipse Filter Press for Cane 
uice and Skimmings, Ludlow Valve Mfg. Co.'s Valves and Hy- 
irants, Geo. F. Blake Mfg. Co. 's Vacuum Syrup Juice and Water 
'urnps for Sugar Houses and Breweries, Nason Steam Traps. 

Dealer in Iron Pipe Fittings, Copper and Brass Tubing, Iron 
nd Brass Globe and Gate Valves, Packing, Belting and General 
>ugar House Supplies. 

Will make contracts for the construction of entire sugar house 
nd machinery plants of modern design. Correspondence solicited. 



Lacy Manufacturing Co. 



MANUFACTURERS OF. 



Steel Water Pipe, Well Casing, 

OIL TANKS AND GENERAL SHEET IRON WORK 



IRRIGATION SUPPLIES 



DEALERS IN CAST IRON PIPE 

Special attention given to the manufacture 
of Sheet Steel Tanks and all Sheet Steel 
Work for Sugar Refineries 

Works: Corner /\ew Main and Date Streets 

OFFICE: ROOMS 4 AND 5 BAKER BLOCK 

Telephone No. 196. Los Angeles, California. 

The University of Nebraska 

(ESTABLISH D N 1869) 

Offers to young- men and to young- women excellent op- 
portunities for a Collegiate, Technical and University 
Education. 

The University is the crown of the Free Public 
School System of the State. In it is found the continua- 
tion from the twelfth grade in the Hig-h Schools of the 
State throug-h the nineteenth grade. 

The University of Nebraska comprises the following 
named Colleges and Schools : 

The Graduate School; The College of literature, Science and the Arts; The 
Industrial College, including courses in Agriculture, Engineering (Civil, Me- 
chanical and Electrical), and the General Sciences; The College of Law; The 
School of Agriculture; The School of Mechanic Arts; The Sugar School; Special 
Professional Courses; General Preparatory Courses in Law and Journalism and 
in Medicine; The Summer School; A Teachers' Course. 

The expenses of living are extremely low, ranging from $125 a year upward. 
Tuition is free, excepting a nominal matriculation fee of five dollars and a rea- 
sonable tuition fee in the professional schools of Law, Music and Art. 

The Calendar will be sent free to all persons who apply for it. For Calen- 
dar or any information that is desired, address 

GEO. K. MACLEAN, Chancellor, 

Lincoln, Nebraska. 



I84O 



HIGHEST AWARD 1876. 

AMERICAN MACHINERY FOR 
AMERICAN PLANTS * * 



1897 



AMERICAN BEET SUGAR HACHINERY 

Every mechanical part of a plant for making Sugar 
from Beet Roots. . . . Made here in the United 
States and guaranteed as good as any that cau be made 
cr used for the business. 

50 YEARS OP PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE IN 

DEVELOPMENT OF 6UGAR MACHINERY 



Have furnished 
all machinery for 
all early Beet 
Plants at Port- 
land. Farnham 
and Wilmington, 
and for Experi- 
ment at Washuig- 
to >, D. C., for 
Department o f 
Agriculture, and 
a t Government 
Station at Mag- 
nolia, Louisiana. 




Beet Machinery 
of any descrip- 
tion, from Foun- 
dation Bolts to 
Chimney Caps. 
Portable R. R. 
Buildings, Eleva- 
tor s , Washers, 
Cutters, Diffusion 
Batteries, Carbo- 
nation Tanks and 
Systems, Filter 
Presses, Triple 
Effect, Pumps, 



Vacuum Pans, Centrifugals, Piping and Boilers. All Parts of a 
Plant in all Details. 



A, W, COLWELt 

(onsuftino and Contracting Engineer for aff flatters 
Pertaining to Beet flachineru 



DRAWINGS ftND ESTIMATES FURNIStt&D 



CORRESPONDENCE SOLICITED 



Address: 39 CortlandtSt,, New York City, 



OF THB 

TTN" T VT.T3 ciTT V 



THIS BOOK IS DUE ON THE LAST DATE 
STAMPED BELOW 

AN INITIAL FINE OF 25 CENTS 

WILL BE ASSESSED FOR FAILURE TO RETURN 
THIS BOOK ON THE DATE DUE. THE PENALTY 
WILL INCREASE TO SO CENTS ON THE FOURTH 
DAY AND TO $1.OO ON THE SEVENTH DAY 
OVERDUE. 



MJG 16 1934 



YC 18882 




\ '